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War film - Wikipedia War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been strongly associated ...

War film - Wikipedia This article is about the genre of film Hardcore History Artillery Games For films named War see War disambiguation Film poster for Kajiro Yamamotos Hawai Mare oki kaisen ハワイ・マレー沖海戦 The War at Sea from Hawaii to Malaya Toho Company 1942 War film is a film genre concerned with warfare typically about naval air or land battles with combat scenes central to the drama It has been strongly associated with the 20th century 2 The fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films often end with them Themes explored include combat survival and escape sacrifice the futility and inhumanity of battle the effects of war on society and the moral and human issues raised by war War films are often categorized by their milieu such as the Korean War the most popular subject is the Second World War The stories told may be fiction historical drama or biographical Critics have noted similarities between the Western and the war film Nations such as China Indonesia Japan and Russia have their own traditions of war film centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms from action and historical drama to wartime romance Subgenres not necessarily distinct include antiwar comedy animated propaganda and documentary There are similarly subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert North Africa the Pacific in the Second World War or Vietnam and films set in specific domains of war such as the infantry the air at sea in submarines or at prisoner of war camps Contents 1 Genre 2 History 2 1 The American Civil War 2 2 The Spanish–American War 2 3 The First World War 2 4 The Spanish Civil War 2 5 The Korean War 2 6 The Algerian War 2 7 The Vietnam War 3 Second World War 3 1 Films made by the Western Allies 3 2 Films made by the Axis powers 3 3 Films made after the war 3 4 Military–film industry relations 4 National traditions 4 1 Chinese 4 2 Indonesian 4 3 Russian 4 4 Japanese 5 Subgenres 5 1 Documentary 5 2 Propaganda 5 3 Submarine 5 4 Prisoner of war 5 5 Comedy 5 6 Animated 5 7 Antiwar 5 8 Mixed genres 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links Further information List of war films The war film genre is not necessarily tightly defined the American Film Institute for example speaks of films to grapple with the Great War without attempting to classify these 3 However some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions The director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that a war film’s objective no matter how personal or emotional is to make a viewer feel war 4John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production a the suspension of civilian morality during times of war b primacy of collective goals over individual motivations c rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women and d depiction of the reintegration of veterans John Wayne in The Longest Day 1962 The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious since war films are simply those about war being waged in the 20th century with combat scenes central to the drama However Neale notes films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War The critic Julian Smith argues on the contrary that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western but that in practice successful and influential war films are about modern wars in particular World War II with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing 2 The film scholar Kathryn Kane6 points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace civilization and savagery War films usually frame World War II as a conflict between good and evil as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples 7 James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpahs The Wild Bunch and warmovie escapades like The Dirty Dozen Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be namely that What I knew in advance was what presumably every member of our culture would know about World War II combat filmsthat they contained a hero a group of mixed types of people and a military objective of some sort They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II against the established enemies on the ground the sea or in the air They contain many repeated events such as mail call all presented visually with appropriate uniforms equipment and iconography of battle Further Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definitionbyexample of the World War II combat film in which a diverse and apparently unsuited group of hastily assembled volunteers hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their bravery and tenacity She argues that the combat film is not a subgenre but the only genuine kind of war film Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War in her view these few films central to the genre are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films However other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film to include films that deal with the roles of civilians espionage agents and soldiers in any of the aspects of war i e preparation cause prevention conduct daily life and consequences or aftermath Neale points out that genres overlap with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film and suggests that war films are characterised by combat which determines the fate of the principal characters This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films Not all critics agree either that war films must be about 20th century wars James Clarke includes Edward Zwicks Oscarwinning Glory 1990 among the war films he discusses in detail it is set in the American Civil War and he lists six other films about that war which he considers notable a Historyedit The American Civil Waredit The costliest war in U S history in terms of American life this war has been the subject of or the backdrop to numerous films documentaries and miniseries One of the earliest films using the Civil War as its subject was D W Griffiths 1910 silent picture The Fugitive 16 Films that have the war as its main subject or about a certain aspect of the war include the 1989 film Glory about the first formal unit of the Union Army during the American Civil War to be made up entirely of black men 17 Some films such as Gettysburg focused on a single battle during the war18 or even on a single incident like the French short film La Rivière du Hibou An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge Others like the 1993 miniseries North and South spanned the entire breadth of the war Some films deal with the human aspects of the war such as The Red Badge of Courage 195120 or Shenandoah 1965 on the tragedy that the war inflicted on the civilian population 21Ken Burnss The Civil War is the most watched documentary in the history of PBS 22 1918 film poster for Die grosse Schlacht in Frankreich The Great Battle in France with Hindenburg in the background The Spanish–American Waredit The first war films come from the Spanish–American War of 1898 Short actualities – documentary filmclips – included Burial of the Maine Victims BlanketTossing of a New Recruit and Soldiers Washing Dishes These noncombat films were accompanied by reenactments of fighting such as of Theodore Roosevelts Rough Riders in action against the Spanish staged in the United States The First World Waredit Further information Fiction based on World War I During the First World War many films were made about life in the war Topics included prisoners of war covert operations and military training Both the Central Powers and the Allies produced war documentaries The films were also used as propaganda in neutral countries like the United States Among these was a film shot on the Eastern Front by official war photographer to the Central Powers Albert K Dawson The Battle and Fall of Przemysl 1915 depicting the Siege of Przemyśl disastrous for the Austrians with incidents reenacted using soldiers as extras 2425 The 1915 Australian film Within Our Gates also known as Deeds that Won Gallipoli by Frank Harvey was described by the Motion Picture News as a really good war story which is exceptional 26 Staged scene of British troops advancing through barbed wire from The Battle of the Somme 1916 The 1916 British film The Battle of the Somme by two official cinematographers Geoffrey Malins and John McDowell combined documentary and propaganda seeking to give the public an impression of what trench warfare was like Much of the film was shot on location at the Western Front in France it had a powerful emotional impact It was watched by some 20 million people in Britain in its six weeks of exhibition making it what the critic Francine Stock called one of the most successful films of all time 2728 William A Wellmans Wings 1927 about the First World War was the first film in any genre and the only silent film to win an Oscar for best picture 29 Later films of varied genres that deal with the First World War include David Leans colossal epic both war film and biopic30Lawrence of Arabia 1962 shot in the then unfamiliar and exciting 70mm Technicolor31 and described by Steven Spielberg as maybe the greatest screenplay ever written for the motionpicture medium30Richard Attenboroughs satirical antiwar musical comedy based on Joan Littlewoods play of the same name Oh What a Lovely War 196932 and Spielbergs war drama War Horse 2011 based on Michael Morpurgos childrens novel of the same name 33 The Spanish Civil Waredit Soviet poster for an exhibition about the Spanish Civil War 1936 Further information List of Spanish Civil War films The Spanish Civil War has attracted directors from different countries Sam Woods For Whom the Bell Tolls 1943 based on Ernest Hemingways book of the same name portrays the fated romance between an American played by Gary Cooper and a partisan played by Ingrid Bergman against the backdrop of the civil war The epic 168 minute film with its landscapes shot in Technicolor and a beautiful orchestral score was a success both with audiences and with critics 34Alain Resnaiss Guernica 1950 uses Picassos painting to protest against war 34Carlos Sauras La Caza The Hunt 1966 uses the metaphor of hunting to criticise the aggressiveness of Spanish fascism 35 It won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 16th Berlin International Film Festival in 1966 36Ken Loachs Land and Freedom Tierra y Libertad 1995 loosely based on George Orwells Homage to Catalonia follows a British communist through the war to reveal the painful contradictions within the antifascist Republican side 34 The Korean Waredit See also CategoryKorean War films Movie poster for South Korean film A Womans War 여성전선 – Yeoseon Jeonseon 1957 Samuel Fuller’s The Steel Helmet 1951 was made during the Korean War 1950–1953 The critic Guy Westwell notes that it questioned the conduct of the war as did later films like The Bridges at TokoRi 1954 and Pork Chop Hill 1959 Fuller agreed that all his films were antiwar No Hollywood films about the Korean War did well at the box office the historian Lary May suggested that they reminded American viewers of the only war we have lost 38 In 1955 after the fighting the successful South Korean action film Piagol about leftist guerrilla atrocities encouraged other filmmakers The 1960s military government punished procommunist filmmakers and gave Grand Bell Awards to films with the strongest anticommunist message Censorship loosened in the 1980s The Taebaek Mountains 1994 dealt with leftists from the south who fought for the communists while Silver Stallion 1991 and Spring in My Hometown 1998 showed the destructive impact of American military presence on village life The violent action films Shiri 1999 and Joint Security Area 2000 presented North Korea in a favourable light 39 Films in North Korea were made by government film studios and had clear political messages The first was My Home Village 1949 on the liberation of Korea from the Japanese presented as the work of Kim Il Sung without help from the Americans Similarly the countrys films about the Korean War show victory without help from the Chinese The film scholar Johannes Schönherr concludes that the purpose of these films is to portray North Korea as a country under siege and that since the U S and its puppet South Korea invaded the North once they would do so again 40 The Algerian Waredit Gillo Pontecorvos dramatic The Battle of Algiers Italian La battaglia di Algeri Arabic معركة الجزائر‎‎ French La Bataille dAlger 1966 portrayed events in the Algerian War 1954–1956 It was shot on location as an ItaloAlgerian coproduction It had the black and white newsreel style of Italian neorealism and evenhandedly depicts violence on both sides It won various awards including Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival 41 It was attacked by French critics and was for five years banned in France 42 The Vietnam Waredit Further information Vietnam War in film Viet Cong poster for a 1967 film about the supposed martyrdom of Nguyen Van Be Few films before the late 1970s about the Vietnam War actually depicted combat The exceptions included The Green Berets 1968 Critics such as Basinger explain that Hollywood avoided the subject because of opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War making the subject divisive in addition the film industry was in crisis and the army did not wish to assist in making antiwar films From the late 1970s independently financed and produced films showed Hollywood that Vietnam could be treated in film Successful but very different portrayals of the war in which America had been defeated included Michael Ciminos The Deer Hunter 1978 and Francis Ford Coppolas Apocalypse Now 1979 With the shift in American politics to the right in the 1980s military success could again be shown in films such as Oliver Stones Platoon 1986 Stanley Kubricks Full Metal Jacket 1987 and John Irvins Hamburger Hill 1987 The Vietnamese director Nguyen Hong Sens The Abandoned Field Free Fire Zone Canh dong hoang 1979 gives an unnerving and compelling subjectivecameraeyeview of life under helicopter fire in the Mekong Delta during the Vietnam War The film cuts to an American helicoptereye view contrasting painfully with the human tenderness seen earlier 45 Second World Waredit Films made by the Western Alliesedit Further information List of Allied propaganda films of World War II Filming aboard the Royal Navy submarine HMS Tribune playing the role of HMS Tyrant in a propaganda film 1943 The first popular Allied war films made during the Second World War came from Britain and combined the functions of documentary and propaganda Films such as The Lion Has Wings and Target for Tonight were made under the control of the Films Division of the Ministry of Information The British film industry began to combine documentary techniques with fictional stories in films like Noël Coward and David Leans In Which We Serve 1942 – the most successful British film of the war yearsMillions Like Us 1943 and The Way Ahead 1944 47 B25s about to launch from the USS Hornet in Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo 1944 In America documentaries were produced in various ways General Marshall commissioned the Why We Fight propaganda series from Frank Capra the War Departments InformationEducation Division started out making training films for the U S Air Force and U S Navy the Army made its own through the U S Signal Corps including John Hustons The Battle of San Pietro 48Hollywood made films with propaganda messages about Americas allies such as Mrs Miniver 1942 which portrayed a British family on the home front49Edge of Darkness 1943 showed Norwegian resistance fighters50 and The North Star 1943 showed the Soviet Union and its Communist Party 51 Towards the end of the war popular books provided higher quality and more serious stories for films such as Guadalcanal Diary film 194352Mervyn LeRoys Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo 1944 and John Fords They Were Expendable 1945 54 Screenshot from Moscow Strikes Back 1942 Snow camouflaged Russian ski infantry ride into battle on BT7 cavalry tanks in the Battle of Moscow The Russians too appreciated the propaganda value of film to publicise both victories and German atrocities Ilya Kopalins documentary Moscow Strikes Back Russian Разгром немецких войск под Москвой literally The rout of the German troops near Moscow was made during the Battle of Moscow between October 1941 and January 1942 It depicted civilians helping to defend the city the parade in Red Square and Stalins speech rousing the Russian people to battle actual fighting Germans surrendering and dead and atrocities including murdered children and hanged civilians It won an Academy Award in 1943 for best documentary 5556 Newsreel cameras were similarly rushed to Stalingrad early in 1943 to record the spectacle which greeted the Russian soldiers – the starvation of Russian prisoners of war in the Voropovono camp by the German Sixth Army defeated in the Battle of Stalingrad 57 Feature films made in the west during the war were subject to censorship and were not always realistic One of the first to attempt to represent violence and which was praised at the time for gritty realism was Tay Garnetts Bataan 1943 The depiction actually remained stylised Jeanine Basinger gives as an example the worst image for stark violence when a Japanese soldier beheads an American the victim shows pain and his lips freeze in a scream yet no blood spurts and his head does not fall off Basinger points out that while this is physically unrealistic psychologically it may not have been The wartime audience was she points out well aware of friends and relatives who had been killed or who had come home wounded 58 Films made by the Axis powersedit Further information Nazi propaganda and Japanese propaganda during World War II Hitler and Goebbels visiting Universum Film AG in 1935 The studio made propaganda films such as Triumph des Willens 1935 and Kolberg 1945 The Axis powers similarly made films during the Second World War for propaganda and other purposes In Germany the army high command brought out Sieg im Westen Victory in the West 1941 59 Other Nazi propaganda films had varied subjects as with Kolberg 1945 which depicts stubborn Prussian resistance in the Siege of Kolberg 1807 to the invading French troops under Napoleon 60 The propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels chose the historical subject as suitable for the worsening situation facing Nazi Germany when it was filmed from October 1943 to August 1944 At over eight million marks using thousands of soldiers as extras and 100 railway wagonloads of salt to simulate snow it was the most costly German film made during the war The actual siege ended with the surrender of the town in the film the French generals abandon the siege 61 For Japan the war began with the undeclared war and invasion of China in 1937 which the Japanese authorities called The China Incident The government dispatched a pen brigade to write and film the action in China with humanist values Tomotaka Tasakas Mud and Soldiers 1939 for instance shot on location in China Kōzaburō Yoshimuras Legend of Tank Commander Nishizumi and Sato Takeshis Chocolate and Soldiers 1938 show the common Japanese soldier as an individual and as a family man and even enemy Chinese soldiers are presented as individuals sometimes fighting bravely 62 Once war with the United States was declared the Japanese conflict became known as the Pacific War Japanese film critics worried that even with Western film techniques their film output failed to represent native Japanese values 63 The historian John Dower found that Japanese wartime films had been largely forgotten as losers do not get reruns yet they were so subtle and skilful that Frank Capra thought Chocolate and Soldiers unbeatable Heroes were typically lowranking officers not samurai calmly devoted to his men and his country These films did not personalise the enemy and therefore lacked hatred though Great Britain could figure as the cultural enemy For Japanese filmmakers war was not a cause but more like a natural disaster and what mattered was not whom one fought but how well Asian enemies especially the Chinese were often portrayed as redeemable and even possible marriage partners Japanese wartime films do not glorify war but present the Japanese state as one great family and the Japanese people as an innocent suffering selfsacrificing people Dower comments that the perversity of this image is obvious it is devoid of any recognition that at every level the Japanese also victimized others Films made after the waredit Further information Fiction based on World War II and List of World War II films Shooting a scene from A Bridge Too Far on location in Deventer Netherlands 1977 According to Andrew Pulver of The Guardian the public fascination with war films became an obsession with over 200 war films produced in each decade of the 1950s and 1960s 66 War film production in the United Kingdom and United States reached its zenith in the mid 1950s Its popularity in the United Kingdom was brought on by the critical and commercial success of Charles Frends The Cruel Sea 1953 Like others of the period The Cruel Sea was based on a bestselling novel in this case the former naval commander Nicholas Monsarrats story of the battle of the Atlantic 6869 Others like The Dam Busters 1954 with its exciting tale of the inventor Barnes Walliss unorthodox bouncing bomb and its distinctive theme music were true stories The Dam Busters became the most popular film in Britain in 195570 and remained a favourite as of 2015 with a 100 score on Rotten Tomatoes71 though partly because it celebrated an exclusively British victory it failed to break into the American market 72 A large number of war films were made in the 195558 period in particular In 1957 alone Bitter Victory Count Five and Die The Enemy Below Ill Met by Moonlight Men in War The One That Got Away and Seven Thunders and the highly successful critically acclaimed pictures The Bridge on the River Kwai which won the Academy Award for Best Picture that year and Paths of Glory were released Some such as Bitter Victory focused more on the psychological battle between officers and egotism rather than events during the war The Bridge on the River Kwai brought a new complexity to the war picture with a sense of moral uncertainty surrounding war By the end of the decade the sense of shared achievement which had been common in war films began to evaporate according to Pulver 66 Hollywood films in the 1950s and 1960s could display spectacular heroics or selfsacrifice as in the popular Sands of Iwo Jima 1949 starring John Wayne U S Marines considered Sands of Iwo Jima visually authentic but found Lewis Milestones Battle Cry 1955 with its attention to the lives of the men the more realistic film The formula for a successful war film consisted according to Lawrence Suid of a small group of ethnically diverse men an unreasonable senior officer cowards became heroic or died Jeanine Basinger suggests that a traditional war film should have a hero a group and an objective and that the group should contain an Italian a Jew a cynical complainer from Brooklyn a sharpshooter from the mountains a midwesterner nicknamed by his state Iowa or Dakota and a character who must be initiated in some way 58 Films based on real commando missions like The Gift Horse 1952 based on the St Nazaire Raid and Ill Met by Moonlight 1956 based on the capture of the German commander of Crete inspired fictional adventure films such as The Guns of Navarone 1961 The Train 1964 and Where Eagles Dare 1968 These used the war as a backdrop for spectacular action 66 Supposed realism the Commemorative Air Forces Gulf Coast Wings Tora Tora Tora team simulating the attack on Pearl Harbor with a wall of fire instead of explosions using planes such as T6 Texans converted to resemble Mitsubishi A6M Zeros and generating smoke77b 2008 Darryl F Zanuck produced the 178 minute documentary drama The Longest Day 1962 based on the first day of the DDay landings achieving commercial success and Oscars 78 It was followed by largescale but thoughtful films like Andrei Tarkovskys Ivans Childhood 1962 and quasidocumentary allstar epics filmed in Europe such as Battle of the Bulge 1965 Battle of Britain 1969 The Battle of Neretva 1969 Midway 1976 and A Bridge Too Far 1977 In Lawrence Suids view The Longest Day served as the model for all subsequent combat spectaculars However its cost also made it the last of the traditional war films while the controversy around the help given by the U S Army and Zanucks disregard for Pentagon relations changed the way that Hollywood and the Army collaborated Zanuck by then an executive at 20th Century Fox set up an AmericanJapanese coproduction for Richard Fleischers Tora Tora Tora 1970 to depict what really happened on December 7 1941 in the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor The film panned by Roger Ebert82 and The New York Times83 was a major success in Japan Its realisticlooking attack footage was reused in later films such as Midway 1976 The Final Countdown 1980 and Australia 2008 The story was revisited in Pearl Harbor 2001 described by The New York Times as a noisy expensive and very long new blockbuster with the comment that for all its epic pretensions as if epic were a matter of running time tumescent music and earnest voiceover pronouncements the movie works best as a bangandboom action picture 85 Steven Spielbergs Saving Private Ryan 1998 uses handheld camera sound design staging and increased audiovisual detail to defamiliarise viewers accustomed to conventional combat films so as to create what film historian Stuart Bender calls reported realism whether or not the portrayal is genuinely more realistic Jeanine Basinger notes that critics experienced it as groundbreaking and antigeneric with in James Wolcotts words a desire to bury the cornball recruiting poster legend of John Wayne to get it right this time and that combat films have always been grounded in the need to help an audience understand and accept war 58 Its success revived interest in World War II films 87 Others tried to portray the reality of the war as in Joseph Vilsmaiers Stalingrad 1993 which The New York Times said goes about as far as a movie can go in depicting modern warfare as a stomachturning form of mass slaughter 88 Military–film industry relationsedit Colonel Frank Capra right of the US Army Signal Corps confers with Captain Roy Boulting of the British Army Film Unit on the editing of the film Tunisian Victory in February 1944 Many war films have been produced with the cooperation of a nations military forces After the Second World War the United States Navy provided ships and technical guidance for films such as Top Gun The U S Air Force assisted with The Big Lift Strategic Air Command and A Gathering of Eagles which were filmed on Air Force bases Air Force personnel appeared in many roles Critics point out that the film Pearl Harbors USbiased portrayal of events is a compensation for technical assistance received by the US armed forces the premiere was actually held on board a U S Navy carrier In another case the U S Navy objected to elements of Crimson Tide especially mutiny on board an American naval vessel so the film was produced without their assistance Film historian Jonathan Rayner observes that such films have also clearly been intended to serve vital propagandist recruitment and public relations functions National traditionsedit Chineseedit The first Chinese war films were newsreels like Battle of Wuhan 1911 and Battle of Shanghai 1913 Still in films such as Xu Xinfus Battle Exploits 1925 war featured mainly as background Only with the Second Sino–Japanese War from 1937 onwards did war film become a serious genre in China with nationalistic films such as Shi Dongshans Protect Our Land 1938 The Chinese Civil War too attracted films such as Cheng Yins From Victory to Victory 1952 A more humanistic film set in the same period is Xie Jins The Cradle 1979 while more recent largescale commercial films include Lu Chuans City of Life and Death 2009 92 Chinese directors have repeatedly attempted to cover the atrocities committed by the Japanese during the Nanking massacre 1937–1938 with films such as the political melodrama Massacre in Nanjing Mou Tun Feis docudrama Black Sun The Nanking Massacre and the contrived Sino–Japanese romance Dont Cry Nanking 93Zhang Yimous epic Chinese film Flowers of War 2011 based on Geling Yans novel portrays the violent events through the eyes of a 13yearold girl 94 Indonesianedit The Siliwangi Division in combat in a scene from Usmar Ismails Darah dan Doa 1950 Many Indonesian films deal with the occupation of the archipelago by the Japanese during the Second World War Teguh Karyas Doea Tanda Mata Mementos literally Two Eye Marks 1985 covers the limited nationalist resistance to Dutch colonial rule in the 1930s 95 A third group of films such as Enam Djam di Jogja Six Hours in Yogyakarta 1951 and Serangan Fajar Attack at Dawn 1983 covers the Indonesian war of independence 1945–1949 Two other films about the same period portray the Indonesian equivalent of the Chinese Long March Usmar Ismails Darah dan Doa The Long March literally Blood and Prayer 1950 and Mereka Kembali They Return 1975 Each of these films interprets the past from the perspective of its own time The more recent Merdeka Freedom trilogy 2009–2011 starting with Merah Putih Red and White the colours of the flag of the new Indonesia revisits the campaign for independence through the lives of a diverse group of cadets who become guerillas 97 Karyas November 1828 1979 looks at Indonesias struggle for independence through historical drama about the Java or Diponegoro War 1825–1830 though the colonial enemy was the same the Dutch Deanne Schultz considered it a valuable interpretation of Indonesian history that embodies the best of popular Indonesian cinema It was the first Indonesian film to become wellknown internationally Russianedit Russias cinema front Yury Ozerov left directing the filming of Stalingrad 1987 War has been Russian cinemas major genre becoming known indeed as the cinema front and its war films ranged from grim portrayals of atrocities to sentimental and even quietly subversive accounts Leonid Lukovs popular and beautiful100Two Warriors 1943 depicted two stereotypical Soviet soldiers a quiet Russian and an extrovert southerner from Odessa singing in his dugout The many Russian films about the Second World War include both largescale epics such as Yury Ozerovs Battle of Moscow 1985 and Mikhail Kalatozovs more psychological The Cranes are Flying 1957 on the cruel effects of war it won the 1958 Palme dOr at Cannes 102 Japaneseedit See also § Animated and CategoryJapanese war films Japanese directors have made popular films such as Submarine I57 Will Not Surrender 1959 Battle of Okinawa 1971 and Japans Longest Day 1967 from a Japanese perspective These generally fail to explain the cause of the war 104 In the decades immediately after the Second World War Japanese films often focused on human tragedy rather than combat 104 From the late 1990s films started to take a positive view of the war and of Japanese actions These nationalistic films including Pride 1998 Merdeka 17805 2001 and The Truth about Nanjing 2007 have emphasized positive traits of the Japanese military and contended that the Japanese were victims of postwar vindictiveness and viciousness Such films have however drawn protest for revisionism 104105106The Eternal Zero 2013 narrates the tale of a Zero fighter pilot who is considered a coward by his comrades as he returns alive from his missions It broke the record takings for a Japanese live action film107 and won the Golden Mulberry at the Udine Far East Film Festival108 but was criticised for its nationalistic sympathy with kamikaze pilots 109 Subgenresedit Documentaryedit Further information Documentary and List of World War II documentary films The wartime authorities in both Britain and America produced a wide variety of documentary films Their purposes included military training advice to civilians and encouragement to maintain security Since these films often carried messages they grade into propaganda Similarly commercially produced films often combined information support for the war effort and a degree of propaganda 4748Newsreels ostensibly simply for information were made in both Allied and Axis countries and were often dramatised 110111112 More recently in the IranIraq War Morteza Avinis Ravayate Fath Chronicles of Victory television series combined frontline footage with commentary 113 Propagandaedit Teutonic Order German monks prepare the hanging of a Russian resistance leader Still from Alexander Nevsky 1938 Further information Propaganda film and World War I film propaganda Sergei Eisensteins 1938 historical drama Alexander Nevsky depicts Prince Alexanders defeat of the attempted invasion of the Russian city of Novgorod by the Teutonic Knights 114 By April 1939 the film had been seen by 23000000 people 115 In 1941 the director and three others were awarded the Stalin Prize for their contributions The film features a musical score by the classical composer Sergei Prokofiev described as the best ever composed for the cinema 116 Russell Merritt writing in Film Quarterly describes it as a war propaganda film 117 A 1978 Mondadori poll placed Alexander Nevsky among the worlds 100 best motion pictures 118 Screenshot from Frank Capras wartime Why We Fight series119 depicting lies being broadcast by the Nazi propaganda machine During the Second World War film propaganda was widely used Kenneth Clark advised the British government that If we renounced interest in entertainment as such we might be deprived of a valuable weapon for getting across our propaganda he suggested using documentaries about the war and the war effort celebrations of Britishness and films about British life and character Michael Powell and Clark agreed on a story about survivors of a Uboat crew imbued with brutal Nazi ideology travelling across Canada and meeting various kind tolerant and intelligent Canadians to encourage America into the war The resulting film 49th Parallel 1941 became the top film at British offices that year Entertaining films could carry messages about the need for vigilance too as in Went the Day Well 1942 or the avoidance of careless talk as in The Next of Kin 1942 47 The romantic drama Casablanca 1943 was used to vilify Nazism In America Charlie Chaplins The Great Dictator 1940 clearly satirised fascism 121Michael Curtizs Casablanca 1943 was not simply a romance between the characters played by Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman but vilified the Nazis and glorified resistance to them 121 Frank Capras Why We Fight series 1942–1945 won the 1942 Academy Award for best documentary though it was designed to influence opinion in the U S military 48122 During the Cold War propaganda played as much of a role in the United States struggle with the Soviet Union as did the billions of dollars spent on weaponry Face to Face with Communism 1951 dramatised an imagined invasion of the United States other films portrayed threats such as communist indoctrination 123 Submarineedit The cramped equipmentfilled setting of a submarine film Das Boot 1981 recreated in the Bavaria film studio Main article Submarine films Submarine films have their own particular meanings and conventions concerned specifically with giving the effect of submarine warfare A distinctive element in this subgenre is the soundtrack which attempts to bring home the emotional and dramatic nature of conflict under the sea For example in Wolfgang Petersens 1981 Das Boot the sound design works together with the hourslong film format to depict lengthy pursuit with depth charges the ping of sonar and threatening sounds such as of the propellors of enemy destroyers and torpedoes 124 Classic films in the genre include The Enemy Below 1957125 and Run Silent Run Deep 1958 both based on novels by naval commanders Run Silent Run Deep is a movie full of tension both with the enemy and between the contrasting personalities of the submarine Commander and his Lieutenant played by Clark Gable and Burt Lancaster 126 Prisoner of waredit Further information Prisoner of war § In popular culture Model of Stalag Luft III used in filming The Great Escape 1963 A popular subgenre of war films in the 1950s and 1960s was the prisoner of war film 127 The genre was popularised in Britain with major films like Guy Hamiltons The Colditz Story 1955 and John Sturgess The Great Escape 1963 127 They told stories of real escapes from German prisoner of war camps such as Stalag Luft III in the Second World War Despite episodes of danger and human tragedy these films delight in a continual boyish game of escape and ingenuity celebrating the courage and the defiant spirit of the prisoners of war and treating war as fun 127David Leans Bridge on the River Kwai 1957 was judged best picture at the Oscars it took the genre from chilly German prisons to the heat of a camp in Thailand It was the first too to use lush colour to bring out the British stiff upper lip of the colonel played by Alec Guinness in an Oscarwinning performance 127 The definitive Oscarwinning prisoner of war film was Billy Wilders Stalag 17 1953 while the brief but powerful prison camp scenes of The Deer Hunter 1977 lend an air of tragedy to the whole of that film 127 Comedyedit First military comedy Charlie Chaplins Shoulder Arms 1918 Further information Comedy film § Military comedy Charlie Chaplins Shoulder Arms 1918 set a style for war films to come and was the first comedy about war in film history 128129 British cinema in the Second World War marked the evacuation of children from London with social comedies such as Those Kids from Town 1942 where the evacuees go to stay with an earl a country nobleman while in Cottage to Let 1941 and Went the Day Well 1942 the English countryside is thick with spies Gasbags 1941 offered zany irreverent knockabout comedy making fun of everything from barrage balloons to concentration camps Abbott and Costellos Buck Privates was successful in America132 leading to many further wartime comedies Animatededit First animated propaganda film Winsor McCays The Sinking of the Lusitania 1918 Winsor McCays The Sinking of the Lusitania 1918 was a silent First World War film At 12 minutes long it was the longest animated film made at that time It was probably the first animated propaganda film to be made it remains the earliest serious animated drama that has survived 134135136 Through World War II animated propaganda shorts remained influential in American cinema The Walt Disney Company working with the American armed forces produced 400000 feet of war propaganda films between 1942 and 1945137 including Der Fuehrers Face 1943 and Education for Death 1943 138 Japanese anime films from the 1960s onwards addressed national memories of war Akira 1988 moves from the atomic destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to apocalyptic visions of global conflict Grave of the Fireflies 1988 is elegiac on the effect of war on children 139Barefoot Gen 1983 portrays the bombing of Hiroshima through the eyes of a childcitation needed but reviewers consider it a less well made film than Grave of the Fireflies with stomachchurning detail bizarrely paired with crude artwork giving it the look of a Saturday morning Warner Brothers cartoon 141 Antiwaredit Antiwar Lewis Milestones All Quiet on the Western Front 1930 Further information List of antiwar films The antiwar genre began with films about the First World War Films in the genre are typically revisionist reflecting on past events and often generically blended Lewis Milestones All Quiet on the Western Front 1930 was unquestionably powerful and an early antiwar film portraying a German point of view it was the first film in any genre to win two Oscars best picture and best director 129 Andrew Kelly analysing All Quiet on the Western Front defined the genre as showing the brutality of war the amount of human suffering the betrayal of mens trust by incompetent officers War and antiwar films often prove difficult to categorize as they contain many generic ambiguities 142 While many antiwar films criticize war directly through depictions of grisly combat in past wars some films such as Penns Alices Restaurant criticized war obliquely by poking fun at such things as the draft board 143 The number of antiwar films produced in America dipped sharply during the 1950s because of McCarthyism and the Hollywood blacklist 144 The end of the blacklist and the introduction of the MPAA rating system marked a time of resurgence for films of all type including antiwar films in the States Robert Eberwein names two films as antiwar classics Jean Renoirs prisoner of war masterpiece129La Grande Illusion The Grand Illusion 1937 and Stanley Kubricks Paths of Glory 1957 The critic David Ehrenstein notes that Paths of Glory established Kubrick as the leading commercial filmmaker of his generation and a worldclass talent Ehrenstein describes the film as an outwardly coolinwardly passionate protest drama about a disastrous French army maneuver and the courtmartial held in its wake contrasting it with the classic All Quiet on the Western Fronts story of an innocent unstrung by the horrors of war 146 Mixed genresedit Some later war films combined black comedy and antiwar sentiment as in the antiwar farces of Mike Nicholss Catch22 1970 based on Joseph Hellers satirical novel about the Second World War and Robert Altmans MASH 1970 set in Korea reflecting the attitudes of an increasingly sceptical public 147 Other genres were combined in Franklin J Schaffners Patton 1970 about real life General George S Patton where combat scenes were interleaved with commentary about how he waged war showing good and bad sides to a command It and MASH became the two most profitable warantiwar films made up to that time148 and Patton won seven Academy Awards 149 Clarkes list of notable Civil War films is Shenandoah 1965 Gods and Generals 2003 Andersonville 1966 The Beguiled 1971 North and South 1985 and Ride with the Devil 1999 Further two of the aircraft are still carrying their weapons after the attack 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Singleton Jack 23 August 2011 Japanese Animation the Pacific War and the Atomic Bomb Impact University of Nottingham Retrieved 11 March 2015   See Raphael Barefoot Gen T H E M Anime Reviews Retrieved 12 March 2015   Stephen Neale January 2000 Genre and Hollywood Psychology Press p  117 ISBN 9780415026062   Paris Michael 4 April 1987 The American Film Industry & Vietnam History Today 37 4   Smith Jeff 2014 Film Criticism the Cold War and the Blacklist University of California Press ISBN 9780520958517 JSTOR 10 1525j ctt6wqb6x   Ehrenstein David 25 June 1989 Paths of Glory The Criterion Collection Retrieved 8 March 2015   Bozzola Lucia Movies Catch22 1970 The New York Times Retrieved 10 March 2015   Suid 2002 pp 260–277 The 43rd Academy Awards 1971 Nominees and Winners Retrieved 8 March 2015   Sourcesedit Basinger Jeanine 1986 World War II Combat Film The Anatomy of a Genre Columbia University Press ISBN 9780231059527   Belton John 1994 American CinemaAmerican Culture McGrawHill 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Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 9780313303074   Monaco James 1992 The Movie Guide Perigee Books ISBN 9780399517808   Murphy Robert 2005 British Cinema and the Second World War A&C Black ISBN 9780826478979   Napier Susan 2005 World War II as Trauma Memory and Fantasy in Japanese Animation The AsiaPacific Journal Japan Focus 1972   Neale Stephen 2000 War Films Genre and Hollywood Psychology Press pp  117–124 ISBN 9780415026062   Orriss Bruce 1984 When Hollywood Ruled the Skies The Aviation Film Classics of World War II Aero Associates ISBN 096130880X   Parish James Robert 1990 The Great Combat Pictures TwentiethCentury Warfare on the Screen Scarecrow Press ISBN 9780810823150   Rayner Jonathan 2007 The Naval War Film Genre History and National Cinema Manchester University Press ISBN 9780719070983   Schultz Deanne 2007 Filmography of World History Greenwood Press ISBN 9780313326813   Stites Richard 1992 Russian Popular Culture Entertainment and Society Since 1900 Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521369862   Suid Lawrence H 2002 Guts & Glory The Making of the American Military Image in Film University Press of Kentucky ISBN 0813190185   Suid Lawrence H 2015 Guts & Glory The Making of the American Military Image in Film Revised and enlarged ed University Press of Kentucky   Tam Kingfai Tsu Timothy Y Wilson Sandra 2014 Chinese and Japanese Films on the Second World War Routledge ISBN 9781317650461   Westwell Guy 2006 War Cinema Hollywood on the Front Line Wallflower ISBN 9781904764540   WojikAndrews Ian 9 September 2002 Childrens Films History Ideology Pedagogy Theory Routledge ISBN 9781135576615   Youngblood Denise J 2010 2006 Russian War Films On the Cinema Front 19142005 University Press of Kansas ISBN 9780700617616   Further readingedit DeBauche Leslie Midkiff 1997 Reel Patriotism the Movies and World War I University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 0299154009   Kane Kathryn R 1982 Visions of War Hollywood Combat Films of World War II UMI Research ISBN 0835712869   Lim Song Hwee Ward Julian 2011 The Chinese Cinema Book Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 9781844575800   Slater Jay 2009 Under Fire a century of war movies Ian Allen Publishing ISBN 0711033854   Stites Richard 1995 Culture and Entertainment in Wartime Russia Indiana University Press ISBN 025335403X   Taylor Mark 2003 The Vietnam War in History Literature and Film University of Alabama Press ISBN 0817314016   External linksedit Imperial War Museum First World War Film Collection Michael Wilmington & Dann Gire World on War A Film Discussion British Film Institute 10 great battleship and waratsea films