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Henry IV, Part 1 - Wikipedia Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing ...
Henry IV, Part 1 - Wikipedia The first page of Henry the Fourth Part I printed in the First Folio of 1623 Henry IV Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written no later than 1597 Henry Clay And The Struggle For The Union It is the second play in Shakespeares tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II Henry IV two plays including Henry IV Part 2 and Henry V Henry IV Part 1 depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspurs battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403 1 From the start it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics 2 Contents 1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text 4 1 The Dering Manuscript 5 Criticism and analysis 5 1 Themes and interpretations 5 2 Oldcastle controversy 6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links Charactersedit Of the Kings party King Henry the Fourth – King of England Henry Prince of Wales nicknamed Prince Hal or Harry – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the Kings second son although he was actually the third Ralph Neville Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount Blunt Eastcheap Sir John Falstaff – a knight who befriends Prince Hal Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly – hostess of the Boars Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler Rebels Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy Earl of Worcester – Northumberlands brother Harry Percy nicknamed Hotspur – Northumberlands son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspurs brotherinlaw and Glendowers soninlaw Owen Glendower – leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope Scroop Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy Kate though her real name was Elizabeth Hotspurs wife and Mortimers sister Lady Mortimer Catrin Glendowers daughter and Mortimers wife Other Characters Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords Officers Drawers Messengers and Attendants Synopsisedit John FarmaneshBocca as Prince Hal in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV Part 1 Henry Bolingbrokenow King Henry IVis having an unquiet reign His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land but broils on his borders with Scotland and Wales prevent that Moreover he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family who helped him to his throne and Edmund Mortimer the Earl of March Richard IIs chosen heir Adding to King Henrys troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir the Prince of Wales Hal the future Henry V has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness Hals chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff Fat old drunk and corrupt as he is he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury where the success of the rebellion will be decided First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council He is the engine of the play but usually in the background Next there is the group of rebels energetically embodied in Henry Percy Hotspur and including his father the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy Earl of Worcester The Scottish Earl of Douglas Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower also join Finally at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal and his companions Falstaff Poins Bardolph and Peto Streetwise and poundfoolish these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy As the play opens the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon Hotspur for his part would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer his wifes brother from Owen Glendower the Welshman who holds him Henry refuses berates Mortimers loyalty and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness Stung and alarmed by Henrys dangerous and peremptory way with them they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots intending to depose this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke 3 By Act II rebellion is brewing Hal confronting Falstaff with his lies in Henry IV Part 1 engraving after Robert Smirke Meanwhile Henrys son Hal is joking drinking and thieving with Falstaff and his associates He likes Falstaff but makes no pretense at being like him He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery purely for the fun of watching Falstaff lie about it later after which Hal returns the stolen money Rather early in the play in fact Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close and he will reassume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some unspecified noble exploits Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of princeship and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur and orders Falstaff who is after all a knight to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg of Act II Scene iv Falstaff enacts the part of the king The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland Glendower Mortimer and the Archbishop of York Henry needs a decisive victory here He outnumbers the rebels4 but Hotspur with the wild hope of despair leads his troops into battle The day wears on the issue still in doubt the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas when Prince Hal and Hotspur the two Harrys that cannot share one land meet Finally they will fight – for glory for their lives and for the kingdom No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior the future king prevails ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat On the way to this climax we are treated to Falstaff who has misused the Kings press damnably5 not only by taking money from ablebodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle food for powder food for powder 6 Left on his own during Hals battle with Hotspur Falstaff dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas After Hal leaves Hotspurs body on the field Falstaff revives in a mock miracle Seeing he is alone he stabs Hotspurs corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill 7 Though Hal knows better he allows Falstaff his disreputable tricks Soon after being given grace by Hal Falstaff states that he wants to amend his life and begin to live cleanly as a nobleman should do 8 The second edition of Raphael Holinsheds Chronicles of England Scotlande and Irelande printed in 1587 The play ends at Shrewsbury after the battle The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels9 and the kings forces prevail Henry is pleased with the outcome not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy the Earl of Worcester one of his chief enemies though previously one of his greatest friends Meanwhile Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner Hal orders his enemy released without ransom 10 But the war goes on now the kings forces must deal with the Archbishop of York who has joined with Northumberland and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV Part 2 Sourcesedit Shakespeares primary source for Henry IV Part 1 as for most of his chronicle histories was the second edition 1587 of Raphael Holinsheds Chronicles which in turn drew on Edward Halls The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniels poem on the civil wars Another source for this and the following Henry plays is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V Date and textedit 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597 given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff character 12 The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600 when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625 The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise The play was Shakespeares most popular printed text new editions appeared in 1599 1604 1608 1613 1622 1632 1639 and 1692 The Dering Manuscriptedit Main article The Dering Manuscript The Dering Manuscript The Dering Manuscript the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play14 provides a singleplay version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS represents a redaction prepared around 1623 perhaps for family or amateur theatrics by Edward Dering 1598–1644 of Surrenden Manor Pluckley Kent where the manuscript was discovered A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS may indicate that Shakespeares Henry IV was originally a single play which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff character The Dering MS is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington D C 15 Criticism and analysisedit Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury And vaulted with such ease into his seat As if an angel droppd down from the clouds To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus And witch the world with noble horsemanship Act IV Scene i Hals transformation William Blake 1809 Themes and interpretationsedit At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff Prince Hal was not mentioned Indeed throughout most of the plays performance history Hal was staged as a secondary figure and the stars of the stage beginning with James Quin and David Garrick often preferred to play Hotspur It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the comingofage story of Hal who is now seen as the starring role In the comingofage interpretation Hals acquaintance with Falstaff and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life citation needed At the outset Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy the young noble lord of the North whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal growing up evolving into King Henry V16 perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeares characters in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England 17 The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character the king has also been noted with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV and his struggle to stay in control of the situation with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff Oldcastle controversyedit The title page from the first quarto edition of the play printed in 1599 Henry IV Part 1 caused controversy on its first performances in 1597 because the comic character now known as Falstaff was originally named Oldcastle and was based on John Oldcastle a famous protoProtestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England Although the character is called Falstaff in all surviving texts of the play there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle The change of names is mentioned in seventeenthcentury works by Richard James Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier c 1625 and Thomas Fuller Worthies of England 1662 It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeares plays In the quarto text of Henry IV Part 2 1600 one of Falstaffs speech prefixes in Act I Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected Old instead of Falst In III ii 256 of the same play Falstaff is said to have been a page to Thomas Mowbray Duke of Norfolkwhich was true of the historical Oldcastle In Henry IV Part 1 Iii42 Prince Hal calls Falstaff my old lad of the castle Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name Falstaff but correct with Oldcastle Finally there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV Part 2 that discriminates between the two figures for Oldcastle died a martyr and this is not the man Epilogue 29–32 In Act III sc 1 Hotspur promised all of England north of the Trent proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature There is even a hint that Falstaff was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too When the First Folio and quarto texts of that play are compared it appears that the joke in Vv85–90 is that OldcastleFalstaff incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name O O O when his fingertips are singed with candleswhich of course works for Oldcastle but not Falstaff There is also the castle reference in IVv6 of the same play 18 The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required it is generally thought because of political pressure the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England These were the Lords Cobham William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham died 6 March 1597 was Warden of the Cinque Ports 1558–97 Knight of the Order of the Garter 1584 and member of the Privy Council 1586–97 his son Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his fathers death and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1599 Even more so Frances Brooke the 10th Barons wife and 11th Barons mother was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I The elder Lord Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre The company of actors formed by Shakespeare Richard Burbage Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey first Lord Hunsdon then serving as Lord Chamberlain they were famously the Lord Chamberlains Men When Carey died on 22 July 1596 the post of Lord Chamberlain was given to William Brooke Lord Cobham who definitely was not a friend to the players and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City Thomas Nashe in a contemporary letter complained that the actors were piteously persecuted by the Lord Mayor and the aldermen during this period Fortunately for the players and for English literature this interval did not last when Cobham died less than a year later the post of Lord Chamberlain went to Henry Careys son George 2nd baron Hunsdon and the actors regained their previous patronage 19 The name was changed to Falstaff based on Sir John Fastolf an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI Part 1 Henry Clay And The Struggle For The Union Fastolf had died without descendants making him safe for a playwrights use Shortly afterward a team of playwrights wrote a twopart play entitled Sir John Oldcastle which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastles life and was published in 1600 In 1986 the Oxford Shakespeare edition of Shakespeares works rendered the characters name as Oldcastle rather than Falstaff in Henry IV Part 1 although not confusingly in Part 2 as a consequence of the editors aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances No other published editions have followed suit Adaptationsedit A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff in a late 19th century performance of the play There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV Part 1 In the 1960 miniseries An Age of Kings Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV with Robert Hardy as Prince Hal Frank Pettingell as Falstaff and Sean Connery as Hotspur 20 The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV David Gwillim as Prince Hal Anthony Quayle as Falstaff and Tim PigottSmith as Hotspur 21 In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown Henry IV Part 1 was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons as Henry IV Tom Hiddleston as Prince Hal Simon Russell Beale as Falstaff and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur 22 Orson Welles Chimes at Midnight 1965 compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single condensed storyline while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff John Gielgud as King Henry Keith Baxter as Hal Margaret Rutherford as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur BBC Televisions 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation Ronald Pickup played the King David Calder Falstaff Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell Hotspur Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V 1989 with Robbie Coltrane portraying Sir John Falstaff and Kenneth Branagh playing the young Prince Hal Gus Van Sants 1991 film My Own Private Idaho is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV The oneman hiphop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV 23 The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV Part 1 in interactive form as well as a modern English translation Saccio pp 47–50 Weil and Weil p 1 Henry IV Part 1 1 3 137 in Bevington 1997 Henry IV Part 1 4 3 30 4 4 19 in Bevington 1997 Henry IV Part 1 4 2 12 in Bevington 1997 Henry IV Part 1 4 2 64 in Bevington 1997 Henry IV Part 1 5 4 110ff in Norton 2008 Henry IV Part 1 5 4 138ff in Norton 2008 Henry IV Part 1 55 19 in Bevington 1997 Henry IV Part 1 5 5 28ff in Norton 2008 Weil and Weil p 4 Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare Folios 89a of that manuscript which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph For further information see the Wikipedia article dedicated to the play Halliday Shakespeare Companion p 135 Sanders 31 Duthie 141 Scoufos Shakespeares Typological Satire p 191 Halliday Shakespeare Companion p 107 Scoufos p 99 BFI Screenonline An Age of Kings Retrieved 20120704 BFI Screenonline Henry IV Part 1 1979 Retrieved 20120704 Cultural Olympiad 2012 Shakespeares History Plays BBC Media Centre 24 November 2011 Retrieved 20120704 Jones Kenneth 27 August 2008 Matt Saxs HipHop Musical Clay Plays KC Prior to NYC Playbill OnLine Retrieved 10 September 2008 Referencesedit Barker Roberta TragicalComicalHistorical Hotspur Shakespeare Quarterly 54 3 2003 288–307 Bevington David ed The Complete Works of Shakespeare Updated Fourth Edition University of Chicago 1997 Duthie George Ian Shakespeare London Routledge 1954 Greenblatt Stephen Invisible Bullets Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V In Political Shakespeare edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield 18–47 1985 Halliday F E A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964 Baltimore Penguin 1964 Saccio Peter Shakespeares English Kings 2nd edn 2000 Sanders Norman The True Prince and the False Thief Shakespeare Survey 30 1977 Weil Herbert and Judith Weil eds The First Part of King Henry IV 1997 New Cambridge Shakespeare Wright Louis B and Virginia A LaMar eds The Folger Library General Readers Shakespeare Henry IV Part I Shakespeare William 2002 Kastan David Scott ed King Henry IV Part 1 Third Series Arden Shakespeare ISBN 9781904271352 External linksedit The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg Henry IV Part 1 public domain audiobook at LibriVox