AMC Rebel - Wikipedia The AMC Rebel (known as the Rambler Rebel in 1967) is a mid-size car produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1967 to 1970. It replaced the Rambler Classic.
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The History of Film - Filmsite.org The Big-Five studios had vast studios with elaborate sets for film production. They owned their own film-exhibiting theatres (about 50% ...
Film History of the 1920s Foundations of the Prolific Film Industry Films really blossomed in the 1920s expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier years AMC Before They Were Stars Most US film production at the start of the decade occurred in or near Hollywood on the West Coast although some films were still being made in New Jersey and in Astoria on Long Island Paramount By the mid20s movies were big business with a capital investment totaling over 2 billion with some theatres offering double features By the end of the decade there were 20 Hollywood studios and the demand for films was greater than ever Most people are unaware that the greatest output of feature films in the US occurred in the 1920s and 1930s averaging about 800 film releases in a year nowadays it is remarkable when production exceeds 500 films in a year Throughout most of the decade silent films were the predominant product of the film industry having evolved from vaudevillian roots But the films were becoming bigger or longer costlier and more polished They were being manufactured assemblyline style in Hollywoods entertainment factories in which production was broken down and organized into its various components writing costuming makeup directing etc Even the earliest films were organized into genres or types with instantlyrecognizable storylines settings costumes and characters The major genre emphasis was on swashbucklers historical extravaganzas and melodramas although all kinds of films were being produced throughout the decade Films varied from sexy melodramas and biblical epics by Cecil B DeMille to westerns such as Cruzes The Covered Wagon 1923 horror films gangstercrime films war films the first feature documentary or nonfictional narrative film Robert Flahertys Nanook of the North 1922 romances mysteries and comedies from the silent comic masters Chaplin Keaton and Lloyd The Major Film Studios The Big Five 19201930 was the decade between the end of the Great War and the Depression following the Stock Market Crash Film theaters and studios were not initially affected in this decade by the Crash in late 1929 The basic patterns and foundations of the film industry and its economic organization were established in the 1920s The studio system was essentially born with longterm contracts for stars lavish production values and increasingly rigid control of directors and stars by the studios production chief and inhouse publicity departments After World War I and into the early 1920s America was the leading producer of films in the world using Thomas Inces factory system of production although the system did limit the creativity of many directors Production was in the hands of the major studios that really flourished after 1927 for almost 20 years and the star system was burgeoning Originally in the earliest years of the motion picture industry production distribution and exhibition were separately controlled When the industry rapidly grew these functions became integrated under one directorship to maximize profits something called vertical integration There were eight major and minor studios see below that dominated the industry They were the ones that had most successfully consolidated and integrated all aspects of a films development By 1929 the filmmaking firms that were to rule and monopolize Hollywood for the next halfcentury were the giants or the majors sometimes dubbed The Big Five They produced more than 90 percent of the fiction films in America and distributed their films both nationally and internationally Each studio somewhat differentiated its products from other studios See History of Film Studio Logos The Big Five Studios Logos 1 Warner Bros Pictures was incorporated in 1923 by Polish brothers Jack Harry Albert and Sam In 1925 Warner Brothers merged with First National forming Warner Bros First National Pictures The studios first principal asset was Rin Tin Tin It became prominent by 1927 due to its introduction of talkies The Jazz Singer 1927 and early 30s gangster films It was known as the Depression studio In the 40s it specialized in Bugs Bunny animations and other cartoons 19231925 19251929 19291935 2 Adolph Zukors Famous Players 1912 and Jesse Laskys Feature Play merged in 1916 to form Famous PlayersLasky Corporation It spent 1 million on United Studios property on Marathon Street in 1926 The Famous PlayersLasky Corporation became Paramount studios in 1927 and was officially named Paramount Pictures in 1935 Its greatest silent era stars were Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks and Rudolph Valentino Golden Age stars included Mae West W C Fields Bing Crosby Bob Hope and director Cecil B DeMille 3 RKO RadioKeithOrpheum Pictures evolved from the Mutual Film Corporation 1912 was established in 1928 as a subsidiary of RCA It was formed by RCA KeithOrpheum Theaters and the FBO Company Film Bookers Organization which was owned by Joseph P Kennedy who had already purchased what remained of Mutual This was the smallest studio of the majors It kept financially afloat with topgrossing AstaireRogers musicals in the 30s King Kong 1933 and Citizen Kane 1941 At one time RKO was acquired by eccentric millionaire Howard Hughes 19291955 4 Marcus Loew of Loews Inc was the parent firm of what eventually became MetroGoldwynMayer Metro Pictures Corporation was a production company founded in 1916 by Richard A Rowland and Louis B Mayer In 1918 Mayer left this partnership to start up his own production company in 1918 called Louis B Mayer Pictures In 1920 Metro Pictures Corporation with its alreadyacquired Goldwyn Pictures Corporation was purchased by early theater exhibitor Marcus Loew of Loews Inc In another acquisition Loew merged his MetroGoldwyn production company with Louis B Mayer Pictures So in summary MGM first named MetroGoldwyn Pictures was ultimately formed in 1924 from the merger of three US film production companies Metro Pictures Corporation 1916 Goldwyn Pictures Corporation 1917 Louis B Mayer Pictures Company 1918 The famous MGM lion roar in the studios opening logo was first recorded and viewed in a film in 1928 Irving Thalberg nicknamed the boy wonder was head of production at MGM from 1924 until his death in 1936 Its greatest early successes were The Big Parade 1925 Broadway Melody 1929 Grand Hotel 1932 Mutiny on the Bounty 1935 A Night at the Opera 1935 The Good Earth 1937 Gone With the Wind 1939 The Wizard of Oz 1939 as well as Tarzan films Tom and Jerry cartoons and stars such as Clark Gable Greta Garbo and Spencer Tracy 19161924 1924192819241925 19281956 5 Fox Film CorporationFoundation was founded in 1912 by NY nickelodeon owner William Fox originally a garment industry worker Its first film was Lifes Shop Window 1914 In 1935 it became 20thCentury Fox formed from the merger of two companies 20th Century Pictures Company founded in 1933 by Darryl F Zanuck the head of production at Warners and Joseph Schenck brother of Nicholas Schenk president of Loews the parent company of MGM Fox Film It became most known for Fox Movietone news and then Bwesterns it was also famous for Shirley Temple films in the mid30s and Betty Grable musicals in the 40s Pre1930 19301933 1933 1933 1935 The BigFive studios had vast studios with elaborate sets for film production They owned their own filmexhibiting theatres about 50 of the seating capacity in the US in mostly firstrun houses in major cities as well as production and distribution facilities They distributed their films to this network of studioowned firstrun theaters or movie palaces mostly in urban areas which charged high ticket prices and drew huge audiences They required blind or block bookings of films whereby theatre owners were required to rent a block of films often cheaplymade lessdesirable Bpictures in order for the studio to agree to distribute the one prestige Alevel picture that the theatre owner wanted to exhibit This technique set the terms for a films release and patterns of exhibition and guaranteed success for the studios productions Monopolistic studio control lasted twenty years until the late 1940s when a federal decree in U S vs Paramount ordered the studios to divest their theatres similar to the rulings against the MPPC the Edison Trust The Minor Film Studios The Little Three Three smaller minor studios were dubbed The Little Three because each of them lacked one of the three elements required in vertical integration owning their own theaters The Little Three Studios Logos 1 Universal Pictures or Universal Film Manufacturing Co was founded by Carl Laemmle in 1912 It was formed from a merger of Laemmles own IMP Independent Motion Picture Company founded in 1909 with Bison 101 the U S production facilities of French studio Éclair Nestor Film Co and several other film companies Its first successes were W C Fields and Abbott and Costello comedies the Flash Gordon serial and Woody Woodpecker cartoons 19141922 19201922 19231926 19271936 2 United Artists was formed in 1919 by movie industry icons Mary Pickford Douglas Fairbanks Sr Charlie Chaplin and director D W Griffith as an independent company to produce and distribute their films AMC Before They Were Stars United Artists utilized an 18acre property owned by Pickford and Fairbanks known as the PickfordFairbanks Studio and later named United Artists Studio in the 1920s 19191967 3 Columbia Pictures was originally the C B C Film Sales Corporation founded in 1920 by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Joseph Brandt and officially named Columbia in 1924 Their studios opened at the old location of ChristieNestor Studios It established prominence with It Happened One Night 1934 Rita Hayworth films Lost Horizon 1937 The Jolson Story 1946 and Batman serials 19191924 19241927 19281936 19361942 Poverty Row Studios and Other Independents Other studios or independents also existed in a shabby area in Hollywood dubbed Poverty Row Sunset Blvd and Gower Street where cheap independent pictures were made with low budgets stock footage and secondtier actors It was the site of Harry and Jack Cohns new business the C B C Film Sales Company later becoming Columbia Pictures Many of the films of the independents were either horror films westerns sciencefiction or thrillers Disney Studios specializing in animation Walt and Roy Disney originally opened their first studio in 1923 in Los Angeles in the back of the HollyVermont Realty office and called it Disney Bros Studio in a few years they opened a new facility in downtown LA in the late 30s they relocated to a 51acre lot in Burbank and changed their name to Walt Disney Productions the Monogram Picture Corporation Rayart Pictures which had taken over the old Selig Studio in Echo Park in 1924 became Monogram Pictures in 1930 it was founded by W Ray Johnston to make mostly inexpensive Westerns and series Charlie Chan the Bowery Boys etc Selznick International Pictures David O Selznick it was formed in 1935 and headed up by David O Selznick previously the head of production at RKO the son of independent film producer Lewis J Selznick the founder of Selznick Pictures Samuel Goldwyn Pictures headed up by independent film producer Samuel L Goldwyn Republic Pictures founded in 1935 by the merger of smaller poverty row studios Consolidated Film Industries Mascot Monogram and Liberty and headed by Herbert Yates of Consolidated Extravagant Movie Palaces The major film studios built luxurious picture palaces that were designed for orchestras to play music to accompany projected films The 3300seat Strand Theater opened in 1914 in New York City marking the end of the nickelodeon era and the beginning of an age of the luxurious movie palaces By 1920 there were more than 20000 movie houses operating in the US The largest theatre in the world with over 6000 seats the Roxy Theater dubbed The Cathedral of the Motion Picture opened in New York City in 1927 with a 6200 seat capacity It was opened by impresario Samuel Lionel Roxy Rothafel at a cost of 10 million The first feature film shown at the Roxy Theater was UAs The Loves of Sunya 1927 starring Gloria Swanson she claimed that it was her personal favorite film and John Boles The Roxy was finally closed in 1960 The Roxy was unchallenged as a showplace until Radio City Music Hall opened five years later Graumans Theatres Impresario Sid Grauman built a number of movie palaces in the Los Angeles area in this time period the Million Dollar Theater on S Broadway in downtown Los Angeles the first movie palace in Los Angeles opened in February 1918 with 2345 seats and premiered the William S Hart western film The Silent Man 1917 the Egyptian Theatre on Hollywood Boulevard opened in 1922 with 1760 seats it was the first major movie palace outside of downtown Los Angeles and noted as having Hollywoods first movie premiere its opening film was Robin Hood 1922 that starred Douglas Fairbanks the theatres creation was inspired by the discovery of King Tuts tomb that same year the nowfamous Chinese Theater with 2258 seats opened in Hollywood on Hollywood Boulevard in May 1927 with the premiere of Cecil B De Milles King of Kings 1927 Star Imprints at Graumans Grauman dubbed as Hollywoods Master Showman established the tradition of having Hollywood stars place their prints in cement in front of the theater to create an instant tourist attraction ever since Legend has it that during the theatres construction silent screen actress Norma Talmadge accidentally stepped into wet cement and inspired the tradition Grauman immortalized his own footprints and invited Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks to do the same Listed below are the first 10 stars beginning in the spring of 1927 to imprint themselves with handprints footprints or signatures in the concrete of the Chinese Theatres forecourt Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks Apr 30 1927 Norma Talmadge May 18 1927 Norma Shearer Aug 1 1927 Harold Lloyd Nov 21 1927 William S Hart Nov 28 1927 Tom Mix and Tony his horse Dec 12 1927 Colleen Moore Dec 19 1927 Gloria Swanson 1927 specific date unknown Constance Talmadge 1927 specific date unknown Charlie Chaplin Jan 1928 Pickford and Fairbanks Two of the biggest silent movie stars of the era were Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford America flocked to the movies to see the Queen of Hollywood dubbed Americas Sweetheart and the most popular star of the generation Our Mary Mary Pickford She had been a child star and had worked at Biograph as a bit actress in 1909 and only ten years later was one of the most influential figures in Hollywood at Paramount In 1916 she was the first star to become a millionaire She was married to another great star Douglas Fairbanks Sr Their wedding in late March 1920 was a major cultural event although it was highly controversial since both of them had to divorce their spouses so they could marry each other She was presented with a wedding gift Pickfair the first syllables of their last names a twentytwo room palatial mansion former hunting lodge in the agricultural area of Beverly Hills marking the start of the movement of stars to lavish homes in the suburbs of W Hollywood and the making of Hollywood royalty The couple remained married from 19201935 Strangely Mary Pickfords downfall began after she bobbed her long curly hair one of moviedoms first fashion trends in 1928 Douglas Fairbanks Sr also became an American legend after switching from light comedies and starring in a series of exciting costumed swashbuckler and adventurefantasy films starting with The Mark of Zorro 1920 soon followed with his expensivelyfinanced lavish adventure film Robin Hood 1922 with gigantic sets famous for the scene in which he eluded death from swordwielding attackers by jumping off a castle balcony and sliding down a 50 ft curtain and the first of four versions of the classic Arabian nights tale by director Raoul Walsh The Thief of Bagdad 1924 This magical film used state of the art revolutionary visual effects for its smokebelching dragon and underwater spider the flying horse the famed flying carpet and magic armies arising from the dust and displayed legendary production design Another first occurred in 1926 a Hollywood film premiere doublefeatured two films together Fairbanks The Black Pirate 1926 with early twocolor Technicolor and the superstars most famous stunt of riding down a ships sail on the point of a knife and Mary Pickfords melodramatic film Sparrows 1926 Fairbanks scored again at the close of the decade with The Iron Mask 1929 The first and only film that cofeatured both stars was a talkie version of The Taming of the Shrew 1929 Pickfords Coquette 1929 her first alltalking film won her an Academy Award but she retired prematurely four years later Other 1920s BoxOffice Stars The top boxoffice stars in the 1920s included Harold Lloyd Gloria Swanson Tom Mix Norma Talmadge Rudolph Valentino Douglas Fairbanks Sr Colleen Moore Norma Shearer John Barrymore Greta Garbo Lon Chaney Sr Clara Bow and Little Mary Pickford Hauntingly mysterious and divine Greta Garbos first American film was The Torrent 1926 followed quickly by The Temptress 1926 Her first major starring vehicle was as a sultry temptress in torrid prone love scenes with offscreen lover John Gilbert in Flesh and the Devil 1926 MGM renamed Broadway actress Lucille Le Sueur and christened her Joan Crawford in 1925 And Louise Brooks made her debut film in middecade with Street of Forgotten Men 1925 Glamorous MGM star Norma Shearer insured her future success as The First Lady of the Screen by marrying genius MGM production supervisor Irving Thalberg in 1927 Clara Bow a redhaired lowerclass Brooklyn girl was subjected to a major publicity campaign by B P Schulberg of Preferred Pictures 19201926 and then Paramounts head of production in the late 20s and early 30s He promoted his upandcoming vivacious future star as his own personal star after grooming and molding her for her starmaking hit film The Plastic Age 1925 as a flirtatious flapper the hottest Jazz Baby in Film Bow was also exceptional in Dancing Mothers 1926 and in her smash hit Mantrap 1926 and was further promoted with teaser campaigns for It 1927 She soon became known as The It sex appeal Girl in the highliving age of flappers after its February 1927 release She was boosted to Paramount Studios superstardom in the late 1920s by more publicity campaigns fan magazine glamorization and rumorspreading Bow also starred in the epic WWI film Wings 1927 and in 1928 became the highest paid movie star at 35000week But by 1933 after years of victimizing exploitation she had gone into serious decline and retired due to harddrinking exhaustion gambling emotional problems a poor choice of roles the revelation of a heavy workingclass Brooklyn accent in the talkies and a burgeoning weight problem Lon Chaney Sr the man of a thousand faces starred in the earliest version of The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1923 and then poignantly portrayed the title character of the Paris Opera House in The Phantom of the Opera 1925 in his signature role The unveiling of the phantoms face when Christine Mary Philbin rips off his mask was and still is a startling sequence Young screen actress platinum blonde starlet Jean Harlow was also discovered and soon contracted with aviation millionairemovie mogul Howard Hughes to replace the female lead in his soontobereleased remade sound version of Hells Angels 1930 another exciting WWI film about British flying aces Janet Gaynor Another famous screen couple dubbed Americas Lovebirds or Americas Sweethearts were romantic film stars Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell who were eventually paired together in twelve films The fact that Farrell was homosexual was kept from the public Their first film was Seventh Heaven 1927 a classic romantic melodrama For their work in Seventh Heaven Janet Gaynor received the first Best Actress Academy Award and director Frank Borzage received the first Best Director Academy Award Janet Gaynor was also honored in the same year with an Academy Award for her exquisite acting in German director F W Murnaus first American film the beautiful Foxproduced Sunrise A Song of Two Humans 1927 often considered the finest silent film ever made by a Hollywood studio Murnaus succeeding films were The Four Devils 1928 and Our Daily Bread 1930 with his last film the sensual semitravelogue documentary Tabu A Story of the South Seas 1931 shot with documentarist Robert Flaherty A week before Tabus premiere in early March 1931 Murnau died in a car accident Film History of the 1920sPart 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4