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Shaolin Kung Fu - Wikipedia History Chinese martial arts before Shaolin. Chinese historical records, like Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue, the Bibliographies in the Book of the Han ...

Shaolin Kung Fu - Wikipedia Shaolin Kung Fu Chinese 少林功夫 pinyin Shàolín gōng fu also called Shaolin Wushu 少林武術 Shàolín wǔshù or Shaolin quan 少林拳 Shàolín quán is one of the oldest largest and most famous styles of Chinese martial arts Shaolin Taizu Chang Quan It combines Zen Buddhism and martial arts and originated and was developed in the Shaolin temple in Henan province China during its 1500year history In Chinese folklore there are famous sayings All martial arts under heaven originated from Shaolin and Shaolin kung fu is the best under heaven which though not provable indicate and appraise the influence and place of Shaolin kung fu among martial arts The name Shaolin is also used as a brand for the socalled external styles of kung fu Many styles in southern and northern China use the name Shaolin Contents 1 History 1 1 Chinese martial arts before Shaolin 1 2 Southern and Northern dynasties 420–589 AD 1 2 1 Shaolin temple established 1 2 2 Bodhidharmas influence 1 3 Sui and Tang dynasties 581–907 AD Shaolin soldier monks 1 4 Ming dynasty 1368–1644 1 4 1 Pirates 2 Contents 2 1 Training 2 2 Styles 2 2 1 List of known styles 2 3 Internal and external kung fu 3 Influence on other martial arts 4 References Historyedit Chinese martial arts before Shaolinedit Chinese historical records like Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue the Bibliographies in the Book of the Han Dynasty the Records of the Grand Historian and other sources document the existence of martial arts in China for thousands of years For example the Chinese martial art of wrestling Shuai Jiao predates the establishment of Shaolin temple by several centuries 1 Since Chinese monasteries were large landed estates sources of considerable regular income monks required protection Historical discoveries indicate that even before the establishment of Shaolin temple monks had arms and also practiced martial arts 2 The establishment of Shaolin Kung fu is however the most important of these stories In 1784 the Boxing Classic Essential Boxing Methods made the earliest extant reference to the Shaolin Monastery as Chinese boxings place of origin 34 This is however a misconception56 but shows the historical importance of Shaolin kung fu Southern and Northern dynasties 420–589 ADedit Shaolin temple establishededit In 495 AD Shaolin temple was built in the Song mountain Henan province The first monk who preached Buddhism there was the Indian monk named Buddhabhadra 佛陀跋陀罗 Fótuóbátuóluó simply called Batuo 跋陀 by the Chinese There are historical records that Batuos first Chinese disciples Huiguang 慧光 and Sengchou 僧稠 both had exceptional martial skills For example Sengchous skill with the tin staff is even documented in the Chinese Buddhist canon After Buddhabadra another Indian7 or Tamil8 monk Bodhidharma 菩提达摩 Pútídámó simply called Damo 达摩 by the Chinese came to Shaolin in 527 AD His Chinese disciple Huike 慧可 was also a highly trained martial arts expert There are implications that these first three Chinese Shaolin monks Huiguang Sengchou and Huike may have been military men before entering the monastic life 9 Bodhidharmas influenceedit Some popular stories1011 consider Bodhidharma as the founder of Shaolin kung fu The idea of Bodhidharma influencing Shaolin boxing is based on a qigong manual written during the 17th century This is when a Taoist with the pen name Purple Coagulation Man of the Way wrote the Sinews Changing Classic in 1624 but claimed to have discovered it The first of two prefaces of the manual traces this qigong styles succession from Bodhidharma to the Chinese general Li Jing via a chain of Buddhist saints and martial heroes 12p165 The work itself is full of anachronistic mistakes and even includes a popular character from Chinese fiction the Qiuran Ke Bushy Bearded Hero 虬髯客 as a lineage master 13 Literati as far back as the Qing Dynasty have taken note of these mistakes The scholar Ling Tinkang 1757–1809 described the author as an ignorant village master 12p168 Like other stories of Shaolin this story1415 has after all some basis in reality Bodhidharma was the founder of Dhyana Chinese 禅 pinyin chán Japanese zen Buddhism Sui and Tang dynasties 581–907 AD Shaolin soldier monksedit During the short period of the Sui dynasty 581–618 the building blocks of Shaolin kung fu took an official form and Shaolin monks began to create fighting systems of their own The 18 methods of Luohan with a strong Buddhist taste were practiced by Shaolin monks since this time which was later used to create more advanced Shaolin martial arts Shaolin monks had developed very powerful martial skills and this showed itself until the end of the Sui dynasty Like most dynastic changes the end of the Sui Dynasty was a time of upheaval and contention for the throne The oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stele from 728 that attests to two occasions a defense of the monastery from bandits around 610 and their role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hulao in 621 Wang Shichong declared himself Emperor He controlled the territory of Zheng and the ancient capital of Luoyang Overlooking Luoyang on Mount Huanyuan was the Cypress Valley Estate which had served as the site of a fort during the Jin and a commandery during the Southern Qi 16 Sui Emperor Wen had bestowed the estate on a nearby monastery called Shaolin for its monks to farm but Wang Shichong realizing its strategic value seized the estate and there placed troops and a signal tower as well as establishing a prefecture called Yuanzhou 16 Furthermore he had assembled an army at Luoyang to march on the Shaolin Temple itself The monks of Shaolin allied with Wangs enemy Li Shimin and took back the Cypress Valley Estate defeating Wangs troops and capturing his nephew Renze Without the fort at Cypress Valley there was nothing to keep Li Shimin from marching on Luoyang after his defeat of Wangs ally Dou Jiande at the Battle of Hulao forcing Wang Shichong to surrender Li Shimins father was the first Tang Emperor and Shimin himself became its second Thereafter Shaolin enjoyed the royal patronage of the Tang Though the Shaolin Monastery Stele of 728 attests to these incidents in 610 and 621 when the monks engaged in combat it does not allude to martial training in the monastery or to any fighting technique in which its monks specialized Nor do any other sources from the Tang Song and Yuan periods allude to military training at the temple According to Meir Shahar this is explained by a confluence of the late Ming fashion for military encyclopedias and more importantly the conscription of civilian irregulars including monks as a result of Ming military decline in the 16th century 17Stele and documentary evidence shows the monks historically worshiped the Bodhisattva Vajrapanis Kimnara King form as the progenitor of their staff and bare hand fighting styles 12 Ming dynasty 1368–1644edit From the 8th to the 15th centuries no extant source documents Shaolin participation in combat then the 16th and 17th centuries see at least forty extant sources attest that not only did monks of Shaolin practice martial arts but martial practice had become such an integral element of Shaolin monastic life that the monks felt the need to justify it by creating new Buddhist lore 17 References to Shaolin martial arts appear in various literary genres of the late Ming the epitaphs of Shaolin warrior monks martialarts manuals military encyclopedias historical writings travelogues fiction and even poetry 17 These sources in contrast to those from the Tang Dynasty period refer to Shaolin methods of combat unarmed with the spear and with the weapon that was the forte of the Shaolin monks and for which they had become famous the staff 317 By the mid16th century military experts from all over Ming China were travelling to Shaolin to study its fighting techniques Around 1560 Yú Dàyóu travelled to Shaolin Monastery to see for himself its monks fighting techniques but found them disappointing Yú returned to the south with two monks Zongqing and Pucong whom he taught the use of the staff over the next three years after which Zongqing and Pucong returned to Shaolin Monastery and taught their brother monks what they had learned Martial arts historian Tang Hao traced the Shaolin staff style Five Tigers Interception to Yús teachings citation needed The earliest extant manual on Shaolin kung fu the Exposition of the Original Shaolin Staff Method18 was written in around 1610 and published in 1621 from what its author Chéng Zōngyóu learned during a more than tenyear stay at the monastery Conditions of lawlessness in Henanwhere the Shaolin Monastery is locatedand surrounding provinces during the late Ming Dynasty and all of the Qing Dynasty contributed to the development of martial arts Meir Shahar lists the martial arts Tai chi chuan Chang Family Boxing Bāguàquán Xíngyìquán and Bajiquan as originating from this region and this time period 17 Piratesedit See also Jiajing wokou raids From the 1540s to the 1560s pirates known as wokou raided Chinas eastern and southeastern coasts on an unprecedented scale The geographer Zheng Ruoceng provides the most detailed of the 16th century sources which confirm that in 1553 Wan Biao Vice Commissioner in Chief of the Nanjing Chief Military Commission initiated the conscription of monksincluding some from Shaolinagainst the pirates 17 Warrior monks participated in at least four battles at the Gulf of Hangzhou in spring 1553 and in the Huangpu River delta at Wengjiagang in July 1553 Majiabang in spring 1554 and Taozhai in autumn 1555 17 The monks suffered their greatest defeat at Taozhai where four of them fell in battle their remains were buried under the Stūpa of the Four Heroic Monks Si yi seng ta at Mount She near Shanghai 17 The monks won their greatest victory at Wengjiagang 17 On 21 July 1553 120 warrior monks led by the Shaolin monk Tianyuan defeated a group of pirates and chased the survivors over ten days and twenty miles 17 The pirates suffered over one hundred casualties and the monks only four 17 Not all of the monks who fought at Wengjiagang were from Shaolin and rivalries developed among them Zheng chronicles Tianyuan’s defeat of eight rival monks from Hangzhou who challenged his command Zheng ranked Shaolin first of the top three Buddhist centers of martial arts 17 Zheng ranked Funiu in Henan second and Mount Wutai in Shanxi third The Funiu monks practiced staff techniques which they had learned at the Shaolin Monastery The Wutai monks practiced Yang Family Spear 楊家槍 pinyin Yángjiā qiāng Contentsedit Shaolin monks demonstrate kung fu Shaolin temple has two main legacies Chan 禅 which refers to Chan Buddhism the religion of Shaolin and Quan 拳 which refers to the martial arts of Shaolin In Shaolin these are not separate disciplines and monks have always pursued the philosophy of the unification of Chan and Quan 禅拳合一 chan quan he yi In a deeper point of view Quan is considered part of Chan As late Shaolin monk Suxi said in the last moments of his life Shaolin is Chan not Quan On the Quan martial side the contents are abundant A usual classification of contents are Basic skills 基本功 jīběn gōng These include stamina flexibility and balance which improve the body abilities in doing martial maneuvers In Shaolin kung fu flexibility and balance skills are known as childish skills 童子功 tóngzǐ gōng which have been classified into 18 postures Power skills 气功 qìgōng These include Qigong meditation Qigong meditation itself has two types internal 内 nèi which is stationary meditation and external 外 wài which is dynamic meditation methods like Shaolin fourpart exercise si duan gong eightsection brocade 八段锦 bā duàn jǐn Shaolin musclechanging scripture 易筋经 yì jīn jīng and others The 72 arts These Include 36 soft and 36 hard exercises which are known as soft and hard qigong Combat skills 拳法 quánfǎ skills These include various barehanded weapon and barehanded vs weapon routines styles and their combat 散打 sàndǎ methods Trainingedit There are many of different schools of Shaolin kung fu with different approaches Even at the Shaolin temple considered as its birthplace training schedules have varied from era to era and it also varies from lineage to lineage among the monks Besides different practitioners have different priorities and so they have different exercises and different timings There is no single defined schedule However the main streamline of daily activities in Shaolin temple is well defined Since the ancient times daily life of the monks at Shaolin temple has included studying and practicing Chan Buddhism studying and practicing kung fu and engaging in temple affairs such as cleaning the temple working on the farms guarding the area etc The typical daily training schedule is19 500 Rising from bed 515–530 Sitting qigong 530–730 Morning run and kung fu practice 730830 Morning meal 900–1130 Performing temple tasks like working at farms chopping wood and tending to commercial affairs monks who are elders or children attend Buddhist classes 1130–1230 Lunch 1230–500 Afternoon kung fu practice martial exercises and combat skills 510–640 Evening Buddhist lessons 650–730 Dinner 900–1000 Personal Time 1000 Going to bed At the morning training session basic skills are practiced Morning training begins with empty stomach by warming up which includes loosening up the body via rotating the joints and then by stamina training via endurance exercises such as various kinds of running jumping pushups etc for 15–30 minutes Then the child skills such as flexibility and balance are practiced for about a halfhour Flexibility training is done via stretching exercises and balance training is done via keeping the body balanced in different childish skills postures for a while Usually morning training takes 1 hour but monks may train themselves by doing more basic exercises and other exercises such as practicing combat drills and routines etc Afternoon training session usually begins at about 200230 and may even begin at 300 on hot summer days At this session mostly the combat skills are practiced These are usually practiced for 1–2 hours In between they may have a few 1520minute rest times and may do other kinds of exercises at this session which make the session to last for 2–3 hours Stylesedit Like the usual system of Chinese martial arts Shaolin combat methods are taught via forms 套路 tàolù Forms that are technically closely related are coupled together and are considered of the same style substyle is a better choice for the word These are usually called the small and the big forms like the small and big hong quan which altogether make the Shaolin hong quan style and the small and big pao quan etc There are also some styles with one form like taizu chang quan Indeed these styles are not complete or standalone this is just a classification of different forms of Shaolin kung fu based on their technical contents Shaolin kung fu has more than hundreds of extant styles There is recorded documentation of more than a thousand extant forms which makes Shaolin the biggest school of martial art in the world In the Qing dynasty 16441911 Shaolin monks chose 100 of the best styles of Shaolin kung fu Then they shortlisted the 18 most famous of them However every lineage of Shaolin monks have always chosen their own styles Every style teaches unique methods for fighting 散打 san da and keeping health via one or a few forms To learn a complete system Shaolin monks master a number of styles and weapons The most famous styles of Shaolin kung fu are List of known stylesedit Arhats 18 hands 罗汉十八手 luóhàn shíbā shǒu known as the oldest style Flood style 洪拳 hóngquán with the small form 小洪拳 xiǎo hóngquán known as the son of the styles and the big form 大洪拳 dà hóngquán known as the mother of the styles Explosive style 炮拳 pàoquán known as the king of the styles PenetratingArms style 通臂拳 tōngbìquán 7star & Long Guard the Heart and Mind Gate style 七星 & 长护心意门拳 qī xīng & cháng hù xīn yì mén quán Plum Blossom style 梅花拳 méihuāquán Facing&Bright Sun style 朝&昭 阳拳 cháo & zhāo yáng quán Arhat style 罗汉拳 luóhànquán known as the most representative style Vajrapani style 金刚拳 jīngāngquán Emperors Longrange style 太祖长拳 tàizǔ chángquán known as the most graceful style 6Match style 六合拳 liùhéquán Soft style 柔拳 róuquán Mind style 心意拳 xīnyìquán Imitative styles 象形拳 xiàngxíngquán including Dragon Tiger Leopard Eagle Monkey Mantis etc Drunken style 醉拳 zuìquán and many other styles Internal and external kung fuedit Huang Zongxi described martial arts in terms of Shaolin or external arts versus Wudang or internal arts in 1669 Shaolin Taizu Chang Quan 20 It has been since then that Shaolin has been popularly synonymous for what are considered the external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any connection to the Shaolin Monastery Some say that there is no differentiation between the socalled internal and external systems of the Chinese martial arts521 while other wellknown teachers hold the opinion that they are different For example the Taijiquan teacher Wu Jianquan Those who practice Shaolinquan leap about with strength and force people not proficient at this kind of training soon lose their breath and are exhausted Taijiquan is unlike this Strive for quiescence of body mind and intention 22 Influence on other martial artsedit Some lineages of karate have oral traditions that claim Shaolin origins 23Martial arts traditions in Japan and Korea and Southeast Asia cite Chinese influence as transmitted by Buddhist monks Recent developments in the 20th century such as Shorinji Kempo 少林寺拳法 practised in Japans Sohonzan Shorinji 金剛禅総本山少林寺 still maintains close ties with Chinas Song Shan Shaolin Temple due to historic links 24 Japanese Shorinji Kempo Group financial contributions to the maintenance of the historic edifice of the Song Shan Shaolin Temple in 2003 received Chinas recognition 25 Referencesedit Canzonieri Salvatore The Emergence of the Chinese Martial arts Han Wei Wushu 23   Henning Stanley 1999b Martial arts Myths of Shaolin Monastery Part I The Giant with the Flaming Staff Journal of the Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii 5 1   a b Henning Stanley E Fall 1999 Academia Encounters the Chinese Martial arts China Review International 6 2 319–332 ISSN 10695834 doi10 1353cri 1999 0020   Zhāng Kǒngzhāo 張孔昭 c 1784 Boxing Classic Essential Boxing Methods 拳經拳法備要 Quánjīng Quánfǎ Bèiyào in Chinese   a b Kit Wong Kiew 2002 Art of Shaolin Kung Fu The Secrets of Kung Fu for SelfDefense Health and Enlightenment   Order of the Shaolin Chan 2004 2006 The Shaolin Grandmasters Text History Philosophy and Gung Fu of Shaolin Chan Oregon Broughton Jeffrey L 1999 The Bodhidharma Anthology The Earliest Records of Zen Berkeley University of California Press ISBN 0520219724 p 8 Broughton Jeffrey L 1999 The Bodhidharma Anthology The Earliest Records of Zen Berkeley University of California Press ISBN 0520219724 pp 5455 Canzonieri Salvatore February–March 1998 History of Chinese Martial arts Jin Dynasty to the Period of Disunity Han Wei Wushu 3 9   Wong Kiew Kit 2002 The Art of Shaolin Kung Fu The Secrets of Kung Fu for SelfDefense Health and Enlightenment Tuttle martial arts Boston Mass p  13   Wong The Art of Shaolin Kung Fu p 19 a b c Shahar Meir 2008 The Shaolin Monastery History Religion and the Chinese Martial Arts Honolulu University of Hawaii Press ISBN 0824831101   Liu James J Y 1967 The Chinese Knight Errant London Routledge and Kegan Paul pp  87–88 ISBN 0226486885   Tang Hao 唐豪 1968 1930 Shàolín Wǔdāng kǎo 少林武當考   Henning Stanley E December 1981 The Chinese Martial Arts in Historical Perspective Military Affairs 45 4 173–179 JSTOR httpswww jstor orgstable1987462 doi10 23071987462   a b Shahar Meir 2000 Epigraphy Buddhist Historiography and Fighting Monks The Case of The Shaolin Monastery Asia Major Third Series 13 2 15–36   a b c d e f g h i j k l Shahar Meir December 2001 MingPeriod Evidence of Shaolin Martial Practice Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies Vol 61 No 2 61 2 359–413 ISSN 00730548 JSTOR 3558572 doi10 23073558572   Chéng Zōngyóu 程宗猷 c 1621 Exposition of the Original Shaolin Staff Method 少林棍法闡宗 Shàolín Gùnfǎ Chǎnzōng in Chinese   Shi Deqian 1995 少林寺武術百科全書 Encyclopedia of Shaolin martial arts 4 volumes ISBN 9787806000991  vol 4 p 676 and vol 1 p 56970 Henning Stanley Autumn–Winter 1994 Ignorance Legend and Taijiquan PDF Journal of the Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii 2 3 1–7   Francis B K 1998 Power of Internal Martial Arts Combat Secrets of Ba Gua Tai Chi and HsingI North Atlantic Books   Woolidge Doug June 1997 T’AI CHI The International Magazine of T’ai Chi Ch’uan Vol 21 No 3 Wayfarer Publications ISSN 07301049   Bishop Mark 1989 Okinawan Karate Teachers Styles and Secret Techniques A&C Black London ISBN 0713656662   Shorinji Kempo 50th Anniversary Commemoration Archived from the original on 8 July 2006 Retrieved 25 May 2006   Chinas Statelevel Friendship Award Given to Shorinji Kempo Group Chairperson Archived from the original on 12 March 2007 Retrieved 25 May 2006