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Salmiya - Wikipedia Salmiya (Arabic السالمية; transliterated As-Sālmīya(h)) is a city area in Hawalli Governorate in the State of Kuwait. Salmiya is administratively divided ...


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Kuwait - Wikipedia Early history. In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait, which at this time was inhabited by a few ...

Kuwait - Wikipedia This article is about the modern country in the Persian Gulf Liberation Of Kuwait For the former autonomous state in southern Arabia see Quaiti Coordinates 29°30′N 45°45′E 29 500°N 45 750°E 29 500 45 750 Kuwait kʊˈweɪt56Arabic الكويت‎‎ alKuwait Gulf Arabic pronunciation ɪl‿ɪkweːt or lɪkweːt officially the State of Kuwait Arabic دولة الكويت‎‎  Dawlat alKuwait is a country in Western Asia Situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf it shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia As of 2016 Kuwait has a population of 4 2 million people 1 3 million are Kuwaitis and 2 9 million are expatriates 7Expatriates account for 70 of the population 8 Oil reserves were discovered in 1938 From 1946 to 1982 the country underwent largescale modernization In the 1980s Kuwait experienced a period of geopolitical instability and an economic crisis following the stock market crash In 1990 Kuwait was invaded by Iraq The Iraqi occupation came to an end in 1991 after military intervention by coalition forces At the end of the war there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure Kuwait is a constitutional state with a semidemocratic political system It has a high income economy backed by the worlds sixth largest oil reserves The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest valued currency in the world 9 According to the World Bank the country has the fourth highest per capita income in the world The Constitution was promulgated in 1962 101112 The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network 13 Contents 1 History 1 1 Early history 1 2 Golden Era 1946–82 1 3 1982 to present day 2 Culture 2 1 Television and theatre 2 2 Arts 2 3 Music 2 4 Museums 2 5 Sport 3 Media 4 Politics 4 1 Political culture 4 2 Legal system 4 3 Human rights 4 4 Foreign relations 4 5 Military 4 6 Administrative divisions 5 Geography 5 1 Climate 5 2 National parks 5 3 Biodiversity 5 4 Water and sanitation 6 Economy 6 1 Petroleum 6 2 Finance 6 3 Health and research 6 4 Education 6 5 Tourism 6 6 Transport 7 Demographics 7 1 Ethnic groups 7 2 Religion 7 3 Languages 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Historyedit Main article History of Kuwait Early historyedit In 1613 the town of Kuwait was founded in modernday Kuwait City In 1716 the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait which at this time was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village 14 In the eighteenth century Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India Muscat Baghdad and Arabia 1516 By the mid 1700s Kuwait had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo 17 During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775–79 Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwaits boatbuilding and trading activities 18 As a result Kuwaits maritime commerce boomed18 as the Indian trade routes with Baghdad Aleppo Smyrna and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait during this time 1719 The East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792 20 The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait India and the east coasts of Africa 20 After the Persians withdrew from Basra in 1779 Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra 21 Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region 2223 During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India East Africa and the Red Sea 242526 Kuwaiti ships were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean 27 Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century 28 Perhaps the biggest catalyst for much of Kuwait becoming prosperous was due to Basras instability in the late 18th century 29 In the late 18th century Kuwait partly functioned as a haven for Basras merchants who were fleeing Ottoman government persecution 30 Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf 273132 The Sheikhdom of Kuwait became a British protectorate in 1899 until 1961 after the AngloKuwaiti agreement of 1899 was signed between Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah and the British government in India due to severe threats to Kuwaits independence from the Ottoman Empire Celebration at Seif Palace in 1944 Following the Kuwait–Najd War of 1919–20 Ibn Saud imposed a trade blockade against Kuwait from the years 1923 until 1937 33 The goal of the Saudi economic and military attacks on Kuwait was to annex as much of Kuwaits territory as possible At the Uqair conference in 1922 the boundaries of Kuwait and Najd were set as a result of British interference Kuwait had no representative at the Uqair conference Ibn Saud persuaded Sir Percy Cox to give him twothirds of Kuwaits territory More than half of Kuwait was lost due to Uqair After the Uqair conference Kuwait was still subjected to a Saudi economic blockade and intermittent Saudi raiding The Great Depression harmed Kuwaits economy starting in the late 1920s 33 International trading was one of Kuwaits main sources of income before oil 33 Kuwaiti merchants were mostly intermediary merchants 33 As a result of the decline of European demand for goods from India and Africa Kuwaits economy suffered The decline in international trade resulted in an increase in gold smuggling by Kuwaiti ships to India 33 Some Kuwaiti merchant families became rich from this smuggling 34 Kuwaits pearl industry also collapsed as a result of the worldwide economic depression 34 At its height Kuwaits pearl industry had led the worlds luxury market regularly sending out between 750 and 800 ships to meet the European elites desire for pearls 34 During the economic depression luxuries like pearls were in little demand 34 The Japanese invention of cultured pearls also contributed to the collapse of Kuwaits pearl industry 34 Golden Era 1946–82edit From 1946 to 1982 Kuwait experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere 353637 In popular discourse the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the Golden Era 35363738 In 1950 a major publicwork programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living By 1952 the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region This massive growth attracted many foreign workers especially from Palestine India and Egypt – with the latter being particularly political within the context of the Arab Cold War 39 In June 1961 Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah AlSalim AlSabah became an Emir Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963 Kuwait was the first of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf to establish a constitution and parliament In the 1960s and 1970s Kuwait was the most developed country in the region 404142 Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports 43 The Kuwait Investment Authority is the worlds first sovereign wealth fund From the 1970s onward Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index 42Kuwait University was established in 1966 42 Kuwaits theatre industry was wellknown throughout the Arab world 3542 In the 1960s and 1970s Kuwaits press was described as one of the freest in the world 44 Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region 45 In 1958 Al Arabi magazine was first published the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world 45 Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait because they enjoyed greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world 4647 The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait Kuwaiti society embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s 48 For example most Kuwaiti women did not wear the hijab in the 1960s and 70s 4950 1982 to present dayedit In the early 1980s Kuwait experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk AlManakh stock market crash and decrease in oil price 51 During the IranIraq war Kuwait supported Iraq Throughout the 1980s there were several terror attacks in Kuwait including the 1983 Kuwait bombings hijacking of several Kuwait Airways planes and the attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985 Kuwait was a regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks 52 Sheikh Jaber AlAhmad Cultural Centre 53 After the IranIraq war ended Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US65 billion debt 54 An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent 55 Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990 after Iraq complained to OPEC claiming that Kuwait was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field 55 In August 1990 Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations the United States led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait in what became known as the Gulf War On 26 February 1991 the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces As they retreated Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire 56 During the Iraqi occupation more than 1000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed In addition more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraqs occupation57 approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq In March 2003 Kuwait became the springboard for the USled invasion of Iraq Upon the death of the Emir Jaber in January 2006 Saad AlSabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his ailing health Sabah AlSabah was sworn in as Emir From 2001 to 2009 Kuwait had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the Arab world 58596061 In 2005 women won the right to vote and run in elections In 2014 and 2015 Kuwait was ranked first among Arab countries in the Global Gender Gap Report 626364 Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City was inaugurated in mid 2015 656667 The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District KNCD which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre Al Shaheed Park and Al Salam Palace 6869 With a capital cost of more than US1 billion the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world 68 In November 2016 the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre opened 5370 It is the largest cultural centre in the Middle East 7172 The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network 13 Cultureedit Main article Culture of Kuwait Kuwaiti popular culture in the form of theatre radio music and television soap opera flourishes and is even exported to neighboring states 7374 Within the Gulf Arab states the culture of Kuwait is the closest to the culture of Bahrain this is evident in the close association between the two states in theatrical productions and soap operas 75 Abdulhussain Abdulredha the countrys most famous actor director playwright and producer Kuwaiti society is markedly more open than other Gulf Arab societies 76 Kuwait stands out in the region as the most liberal in empowering women in the public sphere 777879 Kuwaiti women outnumber men in the workforce 80 Kuwaiti political scientist Ghanim Alnajjar sees these qualities as a manifestation of Kuwaiti society as a whole whereby in the Gulf region it is “the least strict about traditions” 81 Television and theatreedit Kuwaits television drama industry tops other Gulf drama industries and produces a minimum of fifteen serials annually 828384 Kuwait is the production center of the Gulf television drama and comedy scene 83 Most Gulf television drama and comedy productions are filmed in Kuwait 838586 Kuwaiti soap operas are the mostwatched soap operas in the Gulf region 828788 Soap operas are most popular during the time of Ramadan when families gather to break their fast 89 Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia 90 Kuwait is frequently dubbed the Hollywood of the Gulf due to the popularity of its television soap operas and theatre 919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110 Kuwait is known for its homegrown tradition of theatre 111112113 Kuwait is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition 111 The theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the countrys cultural life 114 Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released 115 Theatre activities are still popular today 114Abdulhussain Abdulredha is the most prominent actor Kuwait is the main centre of scenographic and theatrical training in the Gulf region 116117 In 1973 the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in theatrical arts 117 The institute has several divisions Many actors have graduated from the institute such as Souad Abdullah Mohammed Khalifa Mansour AlMansour along with a number of prominent critics such as Ismail Fahd Ismail Theatre in Kuwait is subsidized by the government previously by the Ministry of Social Affairs and now by the National Council for Culture Arts and Letters NCCAL 118 Every urban district has a public theatre 119 The public theatre in Salmiya is named after Abdulhussain Abdulredha Artsedit Kuwait has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula 120121122 Beginning in 1936 Kuwait was the first Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts 120 The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb alDousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Gulf region 123 He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region 124 The Sultan Gallery was the first professional Arab art gallery in the Gulf 125126 Kuwait is home to more than 20 art galleries 127128 In recent years Kuwaits contemporary art scene has boomed 129130131Khalifa AlQattan was the first artist to hold a solo exhibition in Kuwait He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as circulism 132133 Other notable Kuwaiti artists include Sami Mohammad Thuraya AlBaqsami and Suzan Bushnaq The government organizes various arts festivals including the Al Qurain Cultural Festival and Formative Arts Festival 134135136 The Kuwait International Biennial was inaugurated in 1967137 more than 20 Arab and foreign countries have participated in the biennial 137 Prominent participants include Layla AlAttar In 2004 the Al Kharafi Biennial for Contemporary Arab Art was inaugurated Musicedit Kuwait is the birthplace of various popular musical genres such as sawt 138 Kuwaiti music has considerably influenced the music culture in other GCC countries 139138 Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the countrys seafaring heritage140 which is known for genres such as fijiri 141142143 Kuwait pioneered contemporary Khaliji music144145146 Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Gulf region 144145146 The first known Kuwaiti recordings were made between 1912 and 1915 147 The Sheikh Jaber AlAhmad Cultural Centre contains the largest opera house in the Middle East 148 Kuwait is home to various music festivals including the International Music Festival hosted by the National Council for Culture Arts and Letters NCCAL 149150 Kuwait has several academic institutions specializing in universitylevel music education 151152153 The Higher Institute of Musical Arts was established by the government to provide bachelors degrees in music 151152153 In addition the College of Basic Education offers bachelors degrees in music education 151152153 The Institute of Musical Studies offers degrees equivalent to secondary school 151153152 Museumsedit Main article List of museums in Kuwait Sadu House Sadu House is among Kuwaits most important cultural institutions Bait AlOthman is the largest museum specializing in Kuwaits history The Scientific Center is one of the largest science museums in the Middle East The Museum of Modern Art showcases the history of modern art in Kuwait and the region 154 The National Museum established in 1983 has been described as underused and overlooked 155 Several Kuwaiti museums are devoted to Islamic art most notably the Tareq Rajab Museums and Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres 156157 The Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres include education wings conservation labs and research libraries 158159160 There are several art libraries in Kuwait 161160162 Many museums in Kuwait are private enterprises 163156 In contrast to the topdown approach in other Gulf states museum development in Kuwait reflects a greater sense of civic identity and demonstrates the strength of civil society in Kuwait which has produced many independent cultural enterprises 164156163 The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District KNCD which comprises various cultural projects including Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre Al Shaheed Park and Al Salam Palace 6869 With a capital cost of more than US1 billion the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world 68 The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network 13 Sportedit Football is the most popular sport in Kuwait The Kuwait Football Association KFA is the governing body of football in Kuwait The KFA organises the mens womens and futsal national teams The Kuwaiti Premier League is the top league of Kuwaiti football featuring eighteen teams They have been the champions of the 1980 AFC Asian Cup runnersup of the 1976 AFC Asian Cup and have taken third place of the 1984 AFC Asian Cup Kuwait has also been to one FIFA World Cup in 1982 but tied 1–1 with Czechoslovakia on the first round Kuwait is home to many football clubs including AlArabi AlFahaheel AlJahra AlKuwait AlNaser AlSalmiya AlShabab Al Qadsia AlYarmouk Kazma Khaitan Sulaibikhat Sahel and Tadamon The biggest football rivalry in Kuwait is between AlArabi and Al Qadsia Basketball is one of the countrys most popular sports The Kuwait national basketball team is governed by the Kuwait Basketball Association KBA Kuwait made its international debut in 1959 The national team has been to the FIBA Asian Championship in basketball eleven times The Kuwaiti Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in Kuwait Cricket in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Cricket Association Other growing sports include rugby union Handball is widely considered to be the national icon of Kuwait although football is more popular among the overall population Ice hockey in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Ice Hockey Association Kuwait first joined the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1985 but was expelled in 1992 due to a lack of ice hockey activity 165 Kuwait was readmitted into the IIHF in May 2009 166 In 2015 Kuwait won the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia 167168 The 372 m tall Kuwait Telecommunications Tower leftmost is the main communication tower of Kuwait Kuwaits media is annually classified as partly free in the Freedom of Press survey by Freedom House 169 Since 2005170 Kuwait has frequently earned the highest ranking of all Arab countries in the annual Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders 171172173174175176177178179 In 2009 2011 2013 and 2014 Kuwait surpassed Israel as the country with the greatest press freedom in the Middle East 171172173174178 Kuwait is also frequently ranked as the Arab country with the greatest press freedom in Freedom Houses annual Freedom of Press survey 180181182183184185186 Kuwait produces more newspapers and magazines per capita than its neighbors 187188 There are limits to Kuwaits press freedom while criticism of the government and ruling family members is permitted Kuwaits constitution criminalizes criticism of the Emir The stateowned Kuwait News Agency KUNA is the largest media house in the country The Ministry of Information regulates the media industry in Kuwait Kuwait has 15 satellite television channels of which four are controlled by the Ministry of Information Stateowned Kuwait Television KTV offered first colored broadcast in 1974 and operates five television channels Governmentfunded Radio Kuwait also offers daily informative programming in several foreign languages including Arabic Farsi Urdu and English on the AM and SW Politicsedit Main articles Politics of Kuwait Government of Kuwait and National Assembly of Kuwait The Kuwait National Assembly Building Kuwait is a constitutional emirate with a semidemocratic political system 12189190 The Emir is the head of state The hybrid political system is divided between an elected parliament and appointed government 191192 The Constitution of Kuwait was promulgated in 1962 Kuwait is among the Middle Easts freest countries in civil liberties and political rights 193Freedom House rates the country as Partly Free in the Freedom in the World survey 194 Political cultureedit The Constitution of Kuwait is the most liberal constitution in the GCC 195 It guarantees a wide range of civil liberties and rights In contrast to other states in the region the political process largely respects constitutional provisions Kuwait has a robust public sphere and active civil society with political and social organizations that are parties in all but name 196197 Professional groups like the Chamber of Commerce maintain their autonomy from the government 196197 The National Assembly is the legislature and has oversight authority The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members who are chosen in elections held every four years Since the parliament can conduct inquiries into government actions and pass motions of no confidence checks and balances are robust in Kuwait 198 The parliament can be dissolved under a set of conditions based on constitutional provisions 199 The Constitutional Court and Emir both have the power to dissolve the parliament although the Constitutional Court can invalidate the Emirs dissolve Executive power is executed by the government The Emir appoints the prime minister who in turn chooses the ministers comprising the government According to the constitution at least one minister has to be an elected MP from the parliament The parliament is often rigorous in holding the government accountable government ministers are frequently interpellated and forced to resign 199198 Kuwait has more government accountability and transparency than other GCC countries 196 The judiciary is nominally independent of the executive and the legislature and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution 199 The judiciarys independence has come under question although the Constitutional Court is widely regarded as one of the most judicially independent courts in the Arab world 200 The Constitutional Court has the power to dissolve the parliament and invalidate the Emirs decrees as happened in 2013 when the dissolved 2009 parliament resumed its role Kuwaiti women outnumber men in the workforce 80 The political participation of Kuwaiti women has been limited201 although Kuwaiti women are among the most emancipated women in the Middle East In 2014 and 2015 Kuwait was ranked first among Arab countries in the Global Gender Gap Report 626364 In 2013 53 of Kuwaiti women participated in the labor force 202 Kuwait has higher female citizen participation in the workforce than other GCC countries 80202203 Political groups and parliamentary voting blocs exist although most candidates run as independents Once elected many deputies form voting blocs in the National Assembly Kuwaiti law does not recognize political parties 204 However numerous political groups function as de facto political parties in elections and there are blocs in the parliament Major de facto political parties include the National Democratic Alliance Popular Action Bloc Hadas Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood National Islamic Alliance and the Justice and Peace Alliance Legal systemedit Kuwait follows the civil law system modeled after the French legal system205206207 Kuwaits legal system is largely secular 208209210211Sharia law governs only family law for Muslim residents209212 while nonMuslims in Kuwait have a secular family law For the application of family law there are three separate court sections Sunni Shia and nonMuslim According to the United Nations Kuwaits legal system is a mix of English common law French civil law Egyptian civil law and Islamic law 213 The court system in Kuwait is secular 214215 Unlike other Arab states of the Persian Gulf Kuwait does not have Sharia courts 215 Sections of the civil court system administer family law 215 Kuwait has the most secular commercial law in the Gulf 216 The parliament criminalized alcohol consumption in 1983 217 Human rightsedit Main article Human rights in Kuwait Human rights in Kuwait has been the subject of criticism particularly regarding foreign workers rights Expatriates account for 70 of Kuwaits total population The kafala system leaves foreign workers prone to exploitation Kuwait has the most liberal labor laws in the GCC 218219 As a result the International Labour Organization removed Kuwait from the list of countries violating workers rights 220 Foreign relationsedit Main article Foreign relations of Kuwait Location of diplomatic missions of Kuwait   Kuwait   Embassy Foreign affairs relations of Kuwait is handled at the level of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs The first foreign affairs department bureau was established in 1961 Kuwait became the 111th member state of the United Nations in May 1963 It is a longstanding member of the Arab League and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf Before the Gulf War Kuwait was the only proSoviet state in the Persian Gulf region 221 Kuwait acted as a conduit for the Soviets to the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf and Kuwait was used to demonstrate the benefits of a proSoviet stance 221 In July 1987 Kuwait refused to allow U S military bases in its territory 222 As a result of the Gulf War Kuwaits relations with the U S have improved Major nonNATO ally and currently hosts thousands of US military personnel and contractors within active U S facilities Militaryedit The Military of Kuwait traces its original roots to the Kuwaiti cavalrymen and infantrymen that used to protect Kuwait and its wall since the early 1900s These cavalrymen and infantrymen formed the defense and security forces in metropolitan areas charged with protecting outposts outside the wall of Kuwait The Military of Kuwait consists of several joint defense forces The governing bodies are the Kuwait Ministry of Defense the Kuwait Ministry of Interior the Kuwait National Guard and the Kuwait Fire Service Directorate The Emir of Kuwait is the commanderinchief of all defense forces by default Even in the most adverse of all times such as a war even the military is not allowed to make a single move without the Emirs consent Administrative divisionsedit Main article Governorates of Kuwait Kuwait is divided into six governorates The governorates are further subdivided into areas Geographyedit Main article Geography of Kuwait A satellite image of Kuwait reveals its desert topography Kuwait shares land borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia and maritime borders with Iraq Saudi Arabia and Iran Located in the northeast corner of the Arabian Peninsula Kuwait is one of the smallest countries in the world in terms of land area Kuwait lies between latitudes 28° and 31° N and longitudes 46° and 49° E The flat sandy Arabian Desert covers most of Kuwait Kuwait is generally low lying with the highest point being 306 m 1004 ft above sea level 1 Kuwait has nine islands all of which with the exception of Failaka Island are uninhabited 223 With an area of 860 km2 330 sq mi the Bubiyan is the largest island in Kuwait and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2380metrelong 7808 ft bridge 224 0 6 of Kuwaiti land area is considered arable1 with sparse vegetation found along its 499kilometrelong 310 mi coastline 1Kuwait City is located on Kuwait Bay a natural deepwater harbor Kuwaits Burgan field having a total capacity of approximately 70 billion barrels 1 1×1010 m3 of proven oil reserves During the 1991 Kuwaiti oil fires more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about 35 7 km2 13 8 sq mi 225 The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and southeastern parts of Kuwait uninhabitable Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semiasphalt surfaces 226 The oil spills during the Gulf War also drastically affected Kuwaits marine resources 227 Climateedit Main article Climate of Kuwait The spring season in March is warm with occasional thunderstorms The frequent winds from the northwest are cold in winter and hot in summer Southeasterly damp winds spring up between July and October Hot and dry south winds prevail in spring and early summer The shamal a northwesterly wind common during June and July causes dramatic sandstorms 228 Summers in Kuwait are some of the hottest on earth The highest recorded temperature was 54 4 °C 129 9 °F which is the highest temperature recorded in Asia 229 Kuwait experiences colder winters than other GCC countries because of its location in a northern position near Iraq and Iran National parksedit At present there are five protected areas in Kuwait recognized by the IUCN In response to Kuwait becoming the 169th signatory of the Ramsar Convention Bubyan islands Mubarak alKabeer reserve was designated as the countrys first Wetland of International Importance 230 The 50948 ha reserve consists of small lagoons and shallow salt marshes and is important as a stopover for migrating birds on two migration routes 230 The reserve is home to the worlds largest breeding colony of crabplover 230 Biodiversityedit Main articles List of birds of Kuwait and List of mammals of Kuwait More than 363 species of birds were recorded in Kuwait 18 species of which breed in the country 231 Kuwait is situated at the crossroads of several major bird migration routes and between 2 and 3 million birds pass each year 232 The marshes in northern Kuwait and Jahra have become increasingly important as a refuge for passage migrants 232 Kuwaiti islands are important breeding areas for four species of tern and the socotra cormorant 232 Kuwaits marine and littoral ecosystems contain the bulk of the countrys biodiversity heritage 232 Twenty eight species of mammal are found in Kuwait animals such as gerboa desert rabbits and hedgehogs are common in the desert 232 Large carnivores such as the wolf caracal and jackal are not found 232 Among the endangered mammalian species are the red fox and wild cat 232 Causes for wildlife extinction are habitat destruction and extensive unregulated hunting 232 Forty reptile species have been recorded although none are endemic to Kuwait 232 Water and sanitationedit The Kuwait Water Towers in Kuwait City Kuwait does not have any permanent rivers It does have some wadis the most notable of which is Wadi AlBatin which forms the border between Kuwait and Iraq Kuwait relies on water desalination as a primary source of fresh water for drinking and domestic purposes 233234 There are currently more than six desalination plants 234 Kuwait was the first country in the world to use desalination to supply water for large scale domestic use The history of desalination in Kuwait dates back to 1951 when the first distillation plant was commissioned 233 In 1965 the Kuwaiti government commissioned the Swedish engineering company of VBB Sweco to develop and implement a plan for a modern watersupply system for Kuwait City The company built five groups of water towers thirtyone towers total designed by its chief architect Sune Lindström called the mushroom towers For a sixth site the Emir of Kuwait Sheikh Jaber AlAhmed wanted a more spectacular design This last group known as Kuwait Towers consists of three towers two of which also serve as water towers 235 Water from the desalination facility is pumped up to the tower The thirtythree towers have a standard capacity of 102000 cubic meters of water The Water Towers Kuwait Tower and the Kuwait Water Towers were awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture 1980 Cycle 236 Kuwaits fresh water resources are limited to groundwater desalinated seawater and treated wastewater effluents 233 There are three major municipal wastewater treatment plants 233 Most water demand is currently satisfied through seawater desalination plants 233234 Sewage disposal is handled by a national sewage network that covers 98 of facilities in the country 237 Economyedit Main article Economy of Kuwait A proportional representation of Kuwaits exports Kuwait has a petroleumbased economy petroleum is the main export product The Kuwaiti dinar is the highestvalued unit of currency in the world 9 According to the World Bank Kuwait is the fourth richest country in the world per capita 238 Kuwait is the second richest GCC country per capita after Qatar 238239240 Petroleum accounts for half of GDP and 90 of government income 241 Nonpetroleum industries include financial services 241 In the past five years there has been a significant rise in entrepreneurship and small business startups in Kuwait 242243 The informal sector is also on the rise244 mainly due to the popularity of Instagram businesses 245246247 Kuwait is a major source of foreign economic assistance to other states through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development an autonomous state institution created in 1961 on the pattern of international development agencies In 1974 the funds lending mandate was expanded to include all developing countries in the world Petroleumedit Kuwait has proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels estimated to be 10 of the worlds reserves According to the constitution all natural resources in the country are state property Kuwait currently pumps 2 9 million bpd and its full production capacity is a little over 3 million bpd Financeedit The Kuwait Investment Authority KIA is Kuwaits sovereign wealth fund specializing in foreign investment The KIA is the worlds oldest sovereign wealth fund Since 1953 the Kuwaiti government has directed investments into Europe United States and Asia Pacific As of 2015 the holdings were valued at 592 billion in assets 248 It is the 5th largest sovereign wealth fund in the world Kuwait has a leading position in the financial industry in the GCC the abyss that separates Kuwait from its Gulf neighbors in terms of tourism transport and other measures of diversification is absent in the financial sector 249 The Emir has promoted the idea that Kuwait should focus its energies in terms of economic development on the financial industry 249 The historical preeminence of Kuwait among the Gulf monarchies in finance dates back to the founding of the National Bank of Kuwait in 1952 249 The bank was the first local publicly traded corporation in the Persian Gulf region 249 In the late 1970s and early 1980s an alternative stock market trading in shares of Gulf companies emerged in Kuwait the Souk AlManakh 249 At its peak its market capitalization was the third highest in the world behind only the U S and Japan and ahead of the UK and France 249 Kuwait has a large wealthmanagement industry that stands out in the region 249 Kuwaiti investment companies administer more assets than those of any other GCC country save the much larger Saudi Arabia 249 The Kuwait Financial Centre in a rough calculation estimated that Kuwaiti firms accounted for over onethird of the total assets under management in the GCC 249 The relative strength of Kuwait in the financial industry extends to its stock market 249 For many years the total valuation of all companies listed on the Kuwaiti exchange far exceeded the value of those on any other GCC bourse except Saudi Arabia 249 In 2011 financial and banking companies made up more than half of the market capitalization of the Kuwaiti bourse among all the Gulf states the market capitalization of Kuwaiti financialsector firms was in total behind only that of Saudi Arabia 249 In recent years Kuwaiti investment companies have invested large percentages of their assets abroad and their foreign assets have become substantially larger than their domestic assets 249 Health and researchedit Kuwait has a statefunded healthcare system which provides treatment without charge to Kuwaiti nationals There are outpatient clinics in every residential area in Kuwait A public insurance scheme exists to provide reduced cost healthcare to expatriates Private healthcare providers also run medical facilities in the country available to members of their insurance schemes There are 29 public hospitals Many new hospitals are under construction 250 The Sheikh Jaber AlAhmad Hospital is the largest hospital in the Middle East 251 Kuwait has a growing scientific research sector To date Kuwait has registered 384 patents the second highest figure in the Arab world 252253254255 Kuwait produces the largest number of patents per capita in the Arab world and OIC 256257258259 The government has implemented various programs to foster innovation resulting in patent rights 256260 Between 2010 and 2016 Kuwait registered the highest growth in patents in the Arab world 256254260 Literacy rate Educationedit Main article Education in Kuwait Kuwait has the highest literacy rate in the Arab world 261 The general education system consists of four levels kindergarten lasting for 2 years primary lasting for 5 years intermediate lasting for 4 years and secondary lasting for 3 years 262 Schooling at primary and intermediate level is compulsory for all students aged 6 – 14 All the levels of state education including higher education are free 263 The public school system is undergoing a revamp due to a project in conjunction with the World Bank 264 In 2013 the government launched a pilot project in 48 schools across the state called the National Curriculum Framework 264 The curriculum is set to be implemented in the next two or three years 264265 Tourismedit Tourism accounts for 1 5 percent of the GDP 266267 In 2016 the tourism industry generated nearly 500 million in revenue 268 The annual Hala Febrayer festival attracts many tourists from neighboring GCC countries269 and includes a variety of events including music concerts parades and carnivals 269270271 The festival is a monthlong commemoration of the liberation of Kuwait and runs from February 1 to February 28 Liberation Day itself is celebrated on February 26 272 The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District KNCD which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre Al Shaheed Park and Al Salam Palace 6869 With a capital cost of more than US1 billion the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world 68 In November 2016 the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre opened 53 It is the largest cultural centre in the Middle East 71 The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network 13 Transportedit Main article Transport in Kuwait Kuwait has an extensive and modern network of highways Roadways extended 5749 km 3572 mi of which 4887 km 3037 mi is paved There are more than 2 million passenger cars and 500000 commercial taxis buses and trucks in use On major highways the maximum speed is 120 kmh 75 mph Since there is no railway system in the country most people travel by automobiles A highway in Kuwait City The countrys public transportation network consists almost entirely of bus routes The state owned Kuwait Public Transportation Company was established in 1962 It runs local bus routes across Kuwait as well as longer distance services to other Gulf states The main private bus company is CityBus which operates about 20 routes across the country Another private bus company Kuwait Gulf Link Public Transport Services was started in 2006 It runs local bus routes across Kuwait and longer distance services to neighbouring Arab countries There are two airports in Kuwait Kuwait International Airport serves as the principal hub for international air travel Stateowned Kuwait Airways is the largest airline in the country A portion of the airport complex is designated as Al Mubarak Air Base which contains the headquarters of the Kuwait Air Force as well as the Kuwait Air Force Museum In 2004 the first private airline of Kuwait Jazeera Airways was launched In 2005 the second private airline Wataniya Airways was founded Kuwait has one of the largest shipping industries in the region The Kuwait Ports Public Authority manages and operates ports across Kuwait The country’s principal commercial seaports are Shuwaikh and Shuaiba which handled combined cargo of 753334 TEU in 2006 273 Mina AlAhmadi the largest port in the country handles most of Kuwaits oil exports 274 Construction of another major port located in Bubiyan island started in 2007 The port is expected to handle 1 3 million TEU when operations start Demographicsedit Main article Demographics of Kuwait Kuwaiti youth celebrating Kuwaits independence and liberation 2011 Kuwaits 2014 population was 4 1 million people of which 1 2 million were Kuwaitis 1 1 million are Arab 1 4 million Asian expatriates and 76698 Africans 275 Ethnic groupsedit Expatriates account for 70 of Kuwaits total population 60 of Kuwaits total population is Arab including Arab expats 1Indians and Egyptians are the largest expat communities respectively 276 Religionedit Main article Religion in Kuwait Religion statistics December 2016277 Muslim Citizen    99 98 Noncitizen    64 1 Christian Citizen    0 02 Noncitizen    26 4 Other Citizen    0 Noncitizen    9 5 Kuwaiti society is diverse and tolerant 278 The majority of the population is Sunni Muslim with a significant minority of Shia Muslims 279280 The country includes a native Christian community estimated to be composed of between 259 and 400 Christian Kuwaiti citizens 281 Kuwait is the only GCC country besides Bahrain to have a local Christian population who hold citizenship There is also a small number of Baháí Kuwaiti citizens 282283 Kuwait also has a large community of expatriate Christians Hindus Buddhists and Sikhs 282 Languagesedit Kuwaits official language is Modern Standard Arabic but its everyday usage is limited to journalism and education Kuwaiti Arabic is the variant of Arabic used in everyday life 284English is widely understood and often used as a business language Beside English French is taught as a third language for the students of the humanities at schools but for two years only Due to historical immigration Persian is used among Ajam Kuwaitis 285286287 Kuwaiti Arabic is a variant of Gulf Arabic sharing similarities with the dialects of neighboring coastal areas in Eastern Arabia 288 Due to immigration during its early history as well as trade Kuwaiti Arabic borrowed a lot of words from Persian Indian Turkish English and Italian 289 The Iranian subdialects of Larestani Khonji Bastaki and Gerashi also influenced the vocabulary of Kuwaiti Arabic 290 See alsoedit Arts portal Asia portal Geography portal Middle East portal Outline of Kuwait Referencesedit a b c d e f Kuwait The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency 10 April 2015   Population of Kuwait Kuwait Government Online 2013 Archived from the original on 17 January 2013   a b c d IMF Report for Selected Countries and Subjects  Kuwait International Monetary Fund Retrieved 2 May 2015   2015 Human Development Report Summary PDF United Nations Development Programme 2015 p  12 Retrieved 14 December 2015   Kuwait definition of Kuwait in English Oxford Dictionaries Retrieved 5 May 2017   Definition of Kuwait by MerriamWebster MerriamWebster Retrieved 5 May 2017   Public Authority for Civil Information Government of Kuwait 2015 Retrieved 12 March 2016   Kuwait steps up deportations of expat workers The National 29 April 2016   a b 10 Most Valuable Currencies in the World Silicon India 21 March 2012   Ibrahim Ahmed Elbadawi Atif Abdallah Kubursi Kuwaiti Democracy Illusive or Resilient PDF American University of Beirut p  7 Retrieved 12 March 2016  CS1 maint Uses authors parameter link Kuwait Reporters without Borders Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b Kuwaits Democracy Faces Turbulence Wall Street Journal Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b c d Current Members Global Cultural Districts Network Global Cultural Districts Network   AlJassar Mohammad Khalid A May 2009 Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City The Sociocultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya PhD thesis The University of WisconsinMilwaukee p  64 ISBN 9781109229349   Bell Gawain Sir 1983 Shadows on the Sand The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell p  222 Retrieved 12 March 2016   ʻAlami Nisvāṉ 2 1–2 University of Karachi 1995 18 Kuwait became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India Africa and Arabia   a b AlJassar Mohammad Khalid A May 2009 Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City The Sociocultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya PhD thesis The University of WisconsinMilwaukee p  66   a b Bennis Phyllis Moushabeck Michel eds 1991 Beyond the Storm A Gulf Crisis Reader Brooklyn New York Olive Branch Press p  42 ISBN 9780940793828   Lauterpacht Elihu Greenwood C J Weller Marc 1991 The Kuwait Crisis Basic Documents Cambridge international documents series Issue 1 Cambridge UK Research Centre for International Law Cambridge University Press p  4 ISBN 9780521463089   a b AlJassar Mohammad Khalid A May 2009 Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City The Sociocultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya PhD thesis The University of WisconsinMilwaukee p  67   Abdullah Thabit A J 2001 Merchants Mamluks and Murder The Political Economy of Trade in EighteenthCentury Basra Albany New York State University of New York Press p  72 ISBN 9780791448076   Sagher Mostafa Ahmed The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait 1896–1946 PDF PhD Durham UK Durham University p  108 Retrieved 12 March 2016   Sweet Louise Elizabeth 1970 Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East Cultural depth and diversity American Museum of Natural History Natural History Press p  156 The port of Kuwait was then and is still the principal dhowbuilding and trading port of the Persian Gulf though offering little trade itself   Nijhoff M 1974 Bijdragen tot de taal land en volkenkunde in Dutch Volume 130 Leiden Netherlands Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal Land en Volkenkunde p  111   Aggarwal Jatendra M ed 1965 Indian Foreign Affairs Volume 8 p  29   Sanger Richard Harlakenden 1970 The Arabian Peninsula Books for Libraries Press p  150   a b Donaldson Neil 2008 The Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia and the Gulf Lulu com p  93 ISBN 9781409209423   AlJassar Mohammad Khalid A Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City The Sociocultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya PhD thesis The University of WisconsinMilwaukee p  68   Hasan Mohibbul ed 2007 First published 1968 Waqaii manazili Rum Tipu Sultans mission to Constantinople Delhi India Aakar Books p  18 ISBN 9788187879565 For owing to Basras misfortunes Kuwait and Zubarah became rich   Fattah Hala Mundhir 1997 The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq Arabia and the Gulf 1745–1900 Albany New York State University of New York Press p  114 ISBN 9780791431139   Agius Dionisius A 2012 Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman People of the Dhow New York Routledge p  48 ISBN 9781136201820   Ágoston Gábor Masters Bruce 2009 Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire New York Infobase Publishing p  321 ISBN 9781438110257   a b c d e AlJassar Mohammad Khalid A May 2009 Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City The Sociocultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya PhD thesis The University of WisconsinMilwaukee p  80   a b c d e Casey Michael S 2007 The History of Kuwait Westport Connecticut Greenwood Publishing Group p  57 ISBN 9780313340734   a b c Al Sager Noura ed 2014 Acquiring Modernity Kuwaits Modern Era Between Memory and Forgetting National Council for Culture Arts and Letters p  7 ISBN 9789990604238   a b AlNakib Farah ed 2014 Kuwaits Modernity Between Memory and Forgetting Academia edu p  7   a b Farid Alia 2014 Acquiring Modernity Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition aliafarid net   Gonzales Desi November–December 2014 Acquiring Modernity Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition Art Papers   Tsourapas Gerasimos 20160702 Nasser’s Educators and Agitators across alWatan al‘Arabi Tracing the Foreign Policy Importance of Egyptian Regional Migration 1952–1967 British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 43 3 324–341 ISSN 13530194 doi10 108013530194 2015 1102708   Looking for Origins of Arab Modernism in Kuwait Hyperallergic   AlNakib Farah 1 March 2014 Towards an Urban Alternative for Kuwait Protests and Public Participation Built Environment 40 1 101–117   a b c d Cultural developments in Kuwait March 2013   Chee Kong Sam 1 March 2014 What Can Nations Learn from Norway and Kuwait in Managing Sovereign Wealth Funds Market Oracle   alNakib Farah 17 September 2014 Understanding Modernity A Review of the Kuwait Pavilion at the Venice Biennale Jadaliyya   a b Sajjad Valiya S Kuwait Literary Scene A Little Complex Arab Times Archived from the original on 29 November 2014 A magazine Al Arabi was published in 1958 in Kuwait It was the most popular magazine in the Arab world It came out it in all the Arabic countries and about a quarter million copies were published every month   Gunter Barrie Dickinson Roger eds 2013 News Media in the Arab World A Study of 10 Arab and Muslim Countries New York Bloomsbury Publishing USA p  24 ISBN 9781441102393   Sager Abdulaziz Koch Christian Tawfiq Ibrahim Hasanain eds 2008 Gulf Yearbook 2006–2007 I B Tauris p  39 The Kuwaiti press has always enjoyed a level of freedom unparalleled in any other Arab country   Muslim Education Quarterly 8 Islamic Academy 1990 p  61 Kuwait is a primary example of a Muslim society which embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the sixties and seventies   Rubin Barry ed 2010 Guide to Islamist Movements Volume 1 Armonk New York M E Sharpe p  306 ISBN 9780765641380   Wheeler Deborah L The Internet In The Middle East Global Expectations And Local Imaginations Albany New York State University of New York Press p  99 ISBN 9780791465868   Kuwait’s Souk alManakh Stock Bubble Stockmarketcrash net 23 June 2012 Retrieved 14 January 2013   Bansal Narottam P Singh Jitendra P Ko Song Castro Ricardo Pickrell Gary Manjooran Navin Jose Nair Mani Singh Gurpreet eds Processing and Properties of Advanced Ceramics and Composites 240 Hoboken New Jersey John Wiley & Sons 205 ISBN 9781118744116   a b c Kuwait unveils 775M Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre 7 December 2016   Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait 1990 Acig org Archived from the original on 6 October 2014 Retrieved 28 June 2010   a b Gregory Derek 2004 The Colonial Present Afghanistan Palestine Iraq WileyBlackwell ISBN 9781577180906 Retrieved 28 June 2010   Iraq and Kuwait 1972 1990 1991 1997 Earthshots Satellite Images of Environmental Change Archived from the original on 29 April 2012 Retrieved 14 January 2013   Iraq and Kuwait Discuss Fate of 600 Missing Since Gulf War Los Angeles Times Associated Press 9 January 2003   Kuwait ranks top among Arab states in human development – UNDP report KUNA 2009   Human Development Index 2009 PDF Human Development Report hdr undp org p  143   Human Development Index 20072008 PDF Human Development Report p  233   Human Development Index 2006 PDF Human Development Report p  283   a b Kuwait highest in closing gender gap WEF   a b The Global Gender Gap Index 2014 – World Economic Forum World Economic Forum   a b Global Gender Gap Index Results in 2015 World Economic Forum   Sea City achieves the impossible The Worldfolio March 2016   Kuwait develops sea city that brings Persian Gulf 6 miles inland Daily Mail   Tamdeen Groups US 700 million Al Khiran development to bolster Kuwaits retail and tourism growth Liberation Of Kuwait Tamdeen Group   a b c d e f Kuwait National Cultural District Museums Director PDF 28 August 2017   a b c Kuwait National Cultural District   Opening of the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre a milestone in the illustrious company’s history 7 December 2016   a b أمير الكويت يدشن أكبر مركز ثقافي في الشرق الأوسط و4 جواهر تضيء شاطئ الخليج Oman Daily in Arabic   UK Trade & Investment PDF UK Trade & Investment June 2016 p  3   Clive Holes 2004 Modern Arabic Structures Functions and Varieties Georgetown University Press p  75 ISBN 9781589010222   Ali Alawi Alis roadtrip from Bahrain to Kuwait PHOTOS The trip to Kuwait – a country that has built a deep connection with people in the Persian Gulf thanks to its significant drama productions in theater television and even music – started with 25 kilometers of spectacular sea view  Zubir S S Brebbia C A eds 2014 The Sustainable City VIII 2 Volume Set Urban Regeneration and Sustainability Volume 179 of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment Ashurst Southampton UK WIT Press p  599 ISBN 9781845647469   Alazemi Einas The role of fashion design in the construct of national identity of Kuwaiti women in the 21st century PhD University of Southampton p  140199   The Situation of Women in the Gulf States PDF p  18   Karen E Young Small Victories for GCC Women More Educated More Unemployed The Arab Gulf States Institute   Karen E Young More Educated Less Employed The Paradox of Women’s Employment in the Gulf PDF pp  7–8   a b c Kuwait leads Gulf states in women in workforce Gulf News   Stephenson Lindsey Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya p  190   a b Al Mukrashi Fahad 22 August 2015 Omanis turn their backs on local dramas Gulf News Kuwaits drama industry tops other Gulf drama as it has very prominent actors and actresses enough scripts and budgets produces fifteen serials annually at least   a b c Hammond Andrew ed 2017 Pop Culture in North Africa and the Middle East Entertainment and Society Around the World California ABCCLIO p  143144 ISBN 9781440833847   Closer cultural relations between the two countries Oman Daily Observer 20 February 2017 The Kuwaiti television is considered the most active in the Gulf region as it has contributed to the development of television drama in Kuwait and the Gulf region Therefore all the classics of the Gulf television drama are today Kuwaiti dramas by Kuwaiti actors  Big plans for small screens BroadcastPro Me Around 90 of Khaleeji productions take place in Kuwait   Papavassilopoulos Constantinos 10 April 2014 OSN targets new markets by enriching its Arabic content offering IHS Inc   Fattahova Nawara 26 March 2015 First Kuwaiti horror movie to be set in ‘haunted’ palace Kuwait Times Kuwaits TV soaps and theatrical plays are among the best in the region and second most popular after Egypt in the Middle East   Bjørn T Asheim An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait PDF Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences p  9   Kuwaiti Drama Museum formulating thoughts of the Gulf 23 May 2014   Mansfield Peter 1990 Kuwait vanguard of the Gulf Hutchinson p  113   مريم حسين ترحل إلى هوليوود الخليج وتتبرأ من العقوق في بنات سكر نبات MBC in Arabic 29 August 2015   هيفاء حسين  الكويت هي هوليود الخليج in Arabic 8 July 2015   منى البلوشي الكويت هي هوليود الخليج ويقصدونها للشهرة in Arabic 25 August 2013   ارحمة لـ الشرق أبحث دائماً عن التميّز والكويت هوليود الخليج in Arabic 21 December 2014   السليم لـ «الراي الدراما منتعشة والكويت «هوليوود الخليج Al Rai in Arabic 3 February 2016   زينب العسكري الكويت هوليوود الخليج AlAnba in Arabic 28 February 2007   النجم الكوميدي داوود حسين الكويت هوليود الخليج غصب عن خشم أكبر رأس Scope 26 May 2016   أحمد الجسمي عاتب على «دبي و«أم بي سي Al Khaleej in Arabic 3 July 2016   طلال السدر في الديوانية انجذابي لـهوليوود الخليج أقدار Al Watan in Arabic 4 April 2012   ريم أرحمة حريصة على اختيار نصوص جيدة أكثر من الظهور في رمضان AlJarida in Arabic 7 June 2016   وفاء مكي موزة تعيش في ذاكرتي AlQabas in Arabic 13 March 2009   مي أحمد المواهب الشابة لا تقلّّ رقياً عن الفنانين الكبار AlJarida in Arabic 19 February 2010   الإماراتي أحمد الخميس لن أنسى ما فعله طارق العلي معي in Arabic 6 March 2016   سناء الكويت هوليوود الخليج AlQabas in Arabic 17 December 2015   فيديو – رئيس مجلس إدارة نقابة الفنانين الكويتية د نبيل الفيلكاوي الكويت هوليوود الخليج لكنها لاتملك أكاديمية للفنون Al Watan in Arabic 22 April 2015   فايز بن دمخ نفخر باسم الأمير سعود بن محمد Annahar in Arabic 1 June 2016   Kuwait an urban spectacle Muscat Daily 26 March 2015   الله الله عليك يا الكويت AlJarida in Arabic 28 July 2011   الأردنية عبير عيسى لـ الانباء أتمنى استمرار مشاركاتي في الدراما الكويتية Al Anba in Arabic 12 August 2013   Kuwait Cultural Days kick off in Seoul Kuwait News Agency in Arabic 18 December 2015   a b Hammond Andrew 2007 Popular Culture in the Arab World Arts Politics and the Media Cario Egypt American University in Cairo Press p  277 ISBN 9789774160547   Cavendish Marshall 2006 World and Its Peoples Volume 1 Singapore Marshall Cavendish p  244 ISBN 9780761475712   Watson Katie 18 December 2010 Reviving Kuwaits theatre industry BBC News   a b Herbert Ian Leclercq Nicole eds 2000 An Account of the Theatre Seasons 1996–97 1997–98 and 1998–99 The World of Theatre 2000 ed London Taylor & Francis p  147 ISBN 9780415238663   Rubin Don ed 1999 Kuwait The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre Volume 4 The Arab world London Taylor & Francis p  143 ISBN 9780415059329   Alhajri Khalifah Rashed A Scenographers Perspective on Arabic Theatre and ArabMuslim Identity PDF PhD Leeds UK University of Leeds p  207   a b Shooting the Past yoman com 11 July 2013 Most Omanis who get to study drama abroad tend to go to Kuwait or Egypt In the Gulf Kuwait has long been a pioneer in theatre film and television since the establishment of its Higher Institute of Dramatic Arts HIDA in 1973 By contrast there is no drama college or film school in Oman although there is a drama course at Sultan Qaboos University   Herbert Ian Leclercq Nicole eds 2003 World of Theatre 2003 Edition An Account of the Worlds Theatre Seasons The World of Theatre 2003 ed London Taylor & Francis p  214 ISBN 9781134402120   Fiona MacLeod The London musician who found harmony in Kuwait Financial Times   a b Bloom Jonathan Sheila Blair eds 2009 Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture ThreeVolume Set 2009 ed London Oxford University Press p  405 ISBN 9780195309911   Zuhur Sherifa ed 2001 Colors of Enchantment Theater Dance Music and the Visual Arts of the Middle East 2001 ed New York American University in Cairo Press p  383 ISBN 9781617974809   Bjørn T Asheim An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait PDF Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences pp  49–50   Al Qassemi Sultan Sooud 22 November 2013 Correcting misconceptions of the Gulf’s modern art movement AlMonitor The Pulse of the Middle East   Kuwait Atelier Voyage   Kristine Khouri Mapping Arab Art through the Sultan Gallery ArteEast   The Sultan Gallery – Kristine Khouri   Culture of Kuwait Kuwait Embassy in Austria   Art Galleries and Art Museums in Kuwait Art Kuwait   Egyptian Artist Fatma talks about the gateway to human faces and equality for all Reconnecting Arts   Kuwaiti Artist Rua AlShaheen tells us about recycling existing elements to tell a new narrative Reconnecting Arts   Farah Behbehani & the Story of the letter Haa ‘ Al Ostoura Magazine   Muayad H Hussain 2012 Modern Art from Kuwait Khalifa Qattan and Circulism PDF PhD thesis University of Birmingham   Khalifa Qattan Founder of Circulism   Interview with Ali AlYouha Secretary General of Kuwait National Council for Culture Arts and Letters NCCAL PDF oxgaps org   Kuwait celebrates formative arts festival Kuwait News Agency KUNA   KAA honors winners of His Highness Amir formative arts award Kuwait News Agency KUNA   a b 12th Kuwait International Biennial AsiaArt archive   a b Rolf Killius The Cradle of Arabic Sawt Music The Early Musician Generations in Kuwait Qatar Digital Library   Opportunity report for Dutch businesses in Gulf region – Creative Industries PDF Government of Netherlands p  10   Kuwait’s musical heritage The heartbeat of a nation   Sophie Chamas Ya Bahr Brownbook   The Innerworkings of Kuwaiti Pearl Diving Ghazi AlMulaifi   Rolf Killius Hidden Treasures Reflections on Traditional Music in Kuwait Qatar Digital Library   a b Mustafa Said History of Recording in the Gulf area Part 1 Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b Ulaby Laith Performing the Past Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States PDF PhD University of California Los Angeles p  99   a b Mustafa Said History of Recording in the Gulf area Part 2 Retrieved 12 March 2016   A Gulfie record collector writes   Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre jacckw com   International Music Festival opens in Kuwait PDF   Intl Music Festival opens in Kuwait Kuwait News Agency   a b c d AlFaraj Hamed Kuwait music educators perspectives regarding the general goals for music education in Kuwait PhD Case Western Reserve University p  2326   a b c d Alderaiwaish Ahmad Teaching the Clarinet in Kuwait Creating A Curriculum for the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training PDF PhD University of Southampton p  5155   a b c d Alyoser Abdulaziz Z SelfReported Attitudes and Practices of Music Instructors in Kuwait regarding Adult Music Learners PhD Case Western Reserve University p  12   Kuwait Museum of Modern Art myartguides com   Gonzales Desi November–December 2014 Acquiring Modernity Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition Art Papers Art Papers   a b c Exell Karen 2016 Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula Taylor & Francis pp  147–179 ISBN 9781317279006   About Dar alAthar alIslamiyyah darmuseum org kw   Dar alAthar alIslamiyyah at Amricani Cultural Centre darmuseum org kw   Dar alAthar alIslamiyyah at Yarmouk Cultural Centre darmuseum org kw   a b Libraries Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah darmuseum org kw   Abous Us CAPKuwait capkuwait com   First Art Library in Kuwait artkuwait org   a b Excell Karen Wakefield Sarina eds 2016 Museums in Arabia Transnational Practices and Regional Processes Taylor & Francis pp  137–158 ISBN 9781317092766   Exell Karen 2016 Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula Taylor & Francis p  176 ISBN 9781317279006   Szemberg Szymon Podnieks Andrew 2008 Story 42Breakup of old Europe creates a new hockey world International Ice Hockey Federation Retrieved 9 June 2009  CS1 maint Multiple names authors list link Welcome Georgia & Kuwait International Ice Hockey Federation 13 May 2009 Archived from the original on 28 December 2010 Retrieved 9 June 2009   Kuwait wins IIHF Ice Hockey Challenge Cup of Asia 12 June 2015   Kuwait top ice hockey Challenge Cup 12 June 2015   Freedom of the Press – Scores and Status Data 1980–2014 Freedom House Retrieved 12 March 2016   Press Freedom Since 2005 Kuwait has earned the highest ranking of all Arab countries on the annual Press Freedom Index of Reporters Without Borders   a b Kuwait Press Freedom   a b Press Freedom Index 2011–2012   a b Press Freedom Index 2013   a b World Press Freedom Index 2014 – Reporters Without Borders   Press Freedom Index 2006   Press Freedom Index 2007   Press Freedom Index 2008   a b Press Freedom Index 2009 p  2   Press Freedom Index 2010   Freedom of the Press 2010 PDF p  25   Freedom of the Press 2009 PDF p  20   Freedom of the Press 2008 PDF p  24   Freedom of the Press 2006 PDF p  15   Freedom of the Press 2007 PDF p  21   Freedom of the Press 2005 PDF p  15   Women and Media in the Middle East Power Through SelfExpression p  122   Social Semiotics of Arabic Satellite Television Beyond the Glamour p  120   Selvik Kjetil 2011 Elite Rivalry in a SemiDemocracy The Kuwaiti Press Scene Middle Eastern Studies 478   Robert F Worth In Democracy Kuwait Trusts but Not Much New York Times Retrieved 12 March 2016   Selvik Kjetil 2011 Elite Rivalry in a SemiDemocracy The Kuwaiti Press Scene Middle Eastern Studies 47 3 477–496 doi10 108000263206 2011 565143   Ulrichsen Kristian Coates 2014 Politics and Opposition in Kuwait Continuity and Change Journal of Arabian Studies Arabia the Gulf and the Red Sea 4 2 214–230 doi10 108021534764 2014 974323   Ibrahim Ahmed Elbadawi Atif Abdallah Kubursi Kuwaiti Democracy Illusive or Resilient PDF American University of Beirut p  6  CS1 maint Uses authors parameter link Freedom in the World Kuwait Freedom House 2011 Retrieved 25 June 2012   The origins of Kuwaits National Assembly PDF London School of Economics p  7   a b c Bary Rubin Crises in the Contemporary Persian Gulf p  92 Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b F Gregory Gause Oil Monarchies Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States pp  69–70 Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b Kuwait Country Report PDF Bertelsmann Foundation p  17   a b c Nathan J Brown Mechanisms of accountability in Arab governance The present and future of judiciaries and parliaments in the Arab world PDF pp  8–18 Retrieved 12 March 2016   Kuwait court ruling may threaten economic recovery Reuters 15 May 2013 Retrieved 1 July 2013   Lindsey Stephenson 2011 Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya Academia edu   a b Kuwait Selected Issues PDF p  17 Kuwait has higher female labor market participation than other GCC countries further improvements in labor force participation can support future growth prospects Kuwait’s labor force participation rate for Kuwaiti women 53 percent is slightly above the world average 51 percent and much higher than the MENA average 21 percent   Kuwait Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix International Monetary Fund 2012 p  43   Kuwait Security Reform and U S Policy PDF Congressional Research Service 30 August 2013 p  10   Kuwaiti Constitution World Intellectual Property Organization The Kuwait Legal system is based on civil law jurisdiction it is derived from Egyptian and French laws   Doing business in Kuwait Practical Law Thomson Reuters Retrieved 12 March 2016   Doing Business in Kuwait A tax and legal guide PDF   Nyrop Richard F 1985 Persian Gulf states Country Studies 80 In addition Kuwait has established a secular legal system unique among the Gulf states   a b Hopkins Nicholas S Ibrahim Saad Eddin eds 1997 Arab Society Class Gender Power and Development 3rd ed Cairo Egypt American University of Cairo p  417 ISBN 9789774244049   The Legal System of Kuwait An Evaluation Of Its Applicability academia edu p  4   Maddex Robert L Constitutions of the World Abingdon UK Routledge p  153 ISBN 9781136217890   Liebesny Herbert J 1974 The Law of the Near and Middle East Readings Cases and Materials Albany New York State University of New York Press p  110 ISBN 9780873952569   State of Kuwait Public Administration Country Profile PDF United Nations September 2004 p  7   State of Kuwait London School of Economics 21 March 2011 The court system in Kuwait is secular and tries both civil and criminal cases   a b c Price David 2009 The Development of Intellectual Property Regimes in the Arabian Gulf States Infidels at the Gates Abingdon UK RoutledgeCavendish p  23 ISBN 9781134024964   Hafeez Zeeshan Javed Islamic Commercial Law and Economic Development San Fabcisco California Heliographica p  10 ISBN 9781933037097   Gulf parliaments’ war on alcohol Gulf News   Kuwait’s Recent Efforts in Recognizing the Rights of Domestic Workers Human Rights Brief   Kuwait Stumbles Amid Critical Reform Stratfor   International Labour OrganizationKuwait Removal from List of Countries Violating Workers’ Rights Library of Congress   a b Yetiv Steve 1995 America and the Persian Gulf The Third Party Dimension in World Politics Westport Connecticut Greenwood Publishing Group p  51 ISBN 9780275949730   Wallace Charles P 20 July 1987 No Military Bases for U S Kuwait Says Los Angeles Times   Bubiyan island Kuwait Encyclopædia Britannica Archived from the original on 10 December 2008 Retrieved 28 June 2010   Structurae en Bubiyan Bridge 1983 En structurae de 19 October 2002 Retrieved 28 June 2010   Pendick Daniel Kuwaiti Oil Lakes Encarta Archived from the original on 1 November 2009   The Economic and Environmental Impact of the Gulf War on Kuwait and the Persian Gulf American edu Archived from the original on 29 July 2010 Retrieved 28 June 2010   Kuwait country Encarta Archived from the original on 1 November 2009   Kuwait Climate Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved 28 June 2010   Masters Jeff 15 January 2012 2012 Earths 10th warmest year on record and warmest with a La Niña – New country and territory hottest temperature records set in 2012 Weather Underground Archived from the original on 10 August 2014 Retrieved 18 August 2014   a b c Ramsar Kuwait becomes Ramsar state BirdGuides Retrieved 7 September 2015   Lepage Denis Checklist of birds of Kuwait Bird Checklists of the World Avibase   a b c d e f g h i National Biodiversity Strategy for the State of Kuwait p  12   a b c d e F Hamoda Mohamed September 2001 Desalination and water resource management in Kuwait Desalination Science Direct 138 165 doi10 1016S0011916401002594   a b c Irrigation in the near east region in figures Food and Agriculture Organization Retrieved 12 March 2016   Kultermann 1981 Aga Khan Award Regulations of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Kuwait Beatona Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b GDP per capita PPP current international World Development Indicators database World Bank Database updated on 14 April 2015 GDP – per capita PPP The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Economic Outlook Database October 2015 International Monetary Fund Database updated on 6 October 2015 a b The World Factbook CIA Factbook   AlKharafi Naeimah 12 October 2014 Encouraging social entrepreneurship in Kuwait – Special report Kuwait Times   Saltzman Jason 11 November 2014 Keeping Up With Kuwaiti Connection The Startup Circuit In Kuwait Is Up And At Em Entrepreneur Middle East   Etheridge Jamie 27 February 2014 What’s behind the growth of Kuwait’s informal economy Kuwait Times   Greenfield Rebecca 12 July 2013 In Kuwait Instagram Accounts Are Big Business The Wire News for the Atlantic   Kuo Lily Foxman Simone 16 July 2013 A rising class of Instagram entrepreneurs in Kuwait is selling comics makeup and sheep Quartz   Kuwaits booming Instagram economy kottke org 12 July 2013   Kuwait Investment Authority Profile Page Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b c d e f g h i j k l m The Wages of Oil Parliaments and Economic Development in Kuwait and the UAE Michael Herb   Megaprojects boost hospital capacity in Kuwait Oxford Business Group 2016   MidEasts largest hospital to open in Kuwait by end of 2016 2016   Patents By Country State and Year – All Patent Types United States Patent and Trademark Office Retrieved 12 March 2016   Arab World to have more than 197 million Internet users by 2017 according to Arab Knowledge Economy Report To date the United States Patent and Trademark Office USPTO have granted 858 patents to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia positioning it 29th in the world Kuwait is at second place with 272 patents and Egypt at third with 212 patents so far   a b Arab Economy Knowledge Report 2014 PDF pp  20–22   UNESCO Science Report 2005 PDF p  162   a b c A Mixed Bag of Scientific Commitment MIT Technology Review Archived from the original on 13 July 2016 Retrieved 12 March 2016  CS1 maint BOT originalurl status unknown link Regional Profile of the Information Society in Western Asia PDF p  53   Arab states PDF pp  264–265   Science and Technology in the OIC Member Countries PDF p  7   a b Kuwait Sees Fastest Growth of GCC Countries in Obtaining U S Patents Yahoo News Retrieved 12 March 2016   Arab World needs to rise to the literacy challenge Emirates 247 28 July 2010   Ministry of Education Education Indicators in the State of Kuwait 20042005 report  Kuwait Education Indicators Report 2007 Executive Summary  a b c New schools to meet growing demand in Kuwait   Kuwait’s new curriculum to be ready in two years   Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2015 PDF World Travel & Tourism Council   Kuwaits investments in travel and tourism sector to grow by 4 3 per annum BQ Magazine   Kuwait tenth in total Arab countries’ tourism revenue   a b Hala February kicks off with a bang Kuwait Times   Hala Febrayer 2016 Carnival attracts thousands of participants Al Bawaba   Ooredoo Sponsors Kuwaits Biggest Annual Festival   Flaghoisting ceremony signals start of Kuwait national celebrations of 2017 Kuwait Times 3 February 2017 Archived from the original on 3 February 2017 Retrieved 25 February 2017   Kuwaits ports continue to break records – Transportation ArabianBusiness com 4 June 2007 Retrieved 28 June 2015   John Pike Mina Al Ahmadi Kuwait Globalsecurity org Retrieved 28 June 2015   Kuwait residency cap for expats touches off maelstrom Gulf News 1 February 2014   Kuwait MP seeks fiveyear cap on expat workers’ stay Gulf News 30 January 2014   Nationality By Religion and Gender Public Authority for Civil Information Retrieved 20 May 2016   Kuwait 2016 Crime & Safety Report Bureau of Diplomatic Security 2016 Retrieved 22 July 2016   How one country came together after a terror attack BBC 2015 Retrieved 12 March 2016   The Evolution of U S Turkish Relations in a Transatlantic Context PDF Strategic Studies Institute p  87 Archived from the original PDF on 18 March 2015   International Religious Freedom Report US State Department 1999 Retrieved 12 March 2016   a b International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 US State Department 2007 Retrieved 12 March 2016   البهائيون في الكويت 100 منتمٍ ومحفل يديره تسعة أشخاص Al Rai in Arabic   page 19 Ethnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle East 164 p  1999 Unlike the Shia of Saudi Arabia or Bahrain the Kuwaiti Shia mostly are of Persian descent   Alhabib Mohammad E 2010 The Shia Migration from Southwestern Iran to Kuwait PushPull Factors during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries Georgia State University Thesis   Taqi Hanan 2010 Two ethnicities three generations Phonological variation and change in Kuwait PDF PhD Newcastle University   خالد الرشيد اللهجة الكويتية مظلومة في مدارسنا لأن أغلب معلمينا وافدون 20 January 2015 Archived from the original on 20 January 2015   page 28 Lang & Linguistic In Bahrain AlTajir 2013 p  11   Further readingedit AbuHakima Ahmad Mustafa ed 1983 The Modern History of Kuwait 1750–1965 London Luzac & Company ISBN 9780718902599   AbuHakima Ahmad Mustafa ed 1965 History of Eastern Arabia 1750–1800 The rise and development of Bahrain and Kuwait Bahrain Khayats   Tétreault Mary Ann ed 2000 Stories of Democracy Politics and Society in Contemporary Kuwait New York Columbia University Press ISBN 0231114885   External linksedit Kuwait web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries Kuwait at DMOZ Wikimedia Atlas of Kuwait Kuwait travel guide from Wikivoyage