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Attack On Darfur which stars Billy Zane Edward Furlong and Kristanna Loken is the story of a group of Western journalists in Sudan who visit a small village to
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War in Darfur - Wikipedia War in Darfur; Part of the Sudanese Civil Wars: Military situation in Sudan on 6 June 2016. (Darfur on the far left)
War in Darfur - Wikipedia Situation in Darfur redirects here Attack On Darfur For the criminal investigation initiated by the International Criminal Court see International Criminal Court investigation in Darfur The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement SLM and the Justice and Equality Movement JEM rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan which they accused of oppressing Darfurs nonArab population 1920 The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfurs nonArabs This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudans president Omar alBashir for genocide war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court 21 One side of the conflict is composed mainly of Sudanese military and police and the Janjaweed a Sudanese militia group recruited mostly among Arabized indigenous Africans and a small number of Bedouin of the northern Rizeigat the majority of other Arab groups in Darfur remained uninvolved 22 The other side is made up of rebel groups notably the SLMA and the JEM recruited primarily from the nonArab Muslim Fur Zaghawa and Masalit ethnic groups The African Union and the United Nations also have a joint peacekeeping mission in the region named UNAMID Although the Sudanese government publicly denies that it supported the Janjaweed evidence supports claims that it provided financial assistance and weapons and coordinated joint attacks many against civilians 2324 Estimates of the number of human casualties range up to several hundred thousand dead from either combat or starvation and disease Mass displacements and coercive migrations forced millions into refugee camps or across the border creating a humanitarian crisis Former US Secretary of State Colin Powell described the situation as a genocide or acts of genocide 25 The Sudanese government and the JEM signed a ceasefire agreement in February 2010 with a tentative agreement to pursue peace The JEM has the most to gain from the talks and could see semiautonomy much like South Sudan 26 However talks were disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army launched raids and air strikes against a village violating the Tolu agreement The JEM the largest rebel group in Darfur vowed to boycott negotiations 27 List of abbreviations used in this articleAU African UnionDLF Darfur Liberation FrontICC International Criminal CourtIDP Internally Displaced PersonJEM Justice and Equality MovementSLMAA Sudan Liberation MovementArmySLMA Sudan Liberation MovementSPLA Sudan Peoples Liberation ArmyUN United NationsUNAMID United Nations African Union Mission in DarfurUNSC United Nations Security Council Contents 1 Origins of the conflict 1 1 Allegations of apartheid 2 Timeline 2 1 Beginning 2 2 2004–2005 2 3 2006 2 3 1 Proposed UN peacekeeping force 2 3 2 Autumn 2 3 3 Proposed compromise UN force and Sudanese offensive 2 4 2007 2 5 2008 2 6 2009 2 7 2010 to 2012 2 8 2013 2 9 2014 2 10 2015 2 11 2016 3 Janjaweed participation 4 Rape of women and young girls 5 Mortality figures 6 International response 6 1 International Criminal Court 6 2 Foreign support for the Sudanese government 6 3 Criticism of international response 7 In the media 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links Origins of the conflictedit Main article History of Darfur Darfur Arabic for the home of the Fur was not a traditional part of the states organized along the upper Nile valley but instead organized as an independent sultanate in the 14th century It was first annexed to the Egyptian Sudan in 1875 and then surrendered by its governor Slatin Pasha to the Mahdia in 1883 Following the AngloEgyptian victory in the Mahdist War Sultan Ali Dinar was reinstated as a British client before being deposed by a 1916 expedition after he made overtures in favor of Turkey amid the First World War Subsequently Darfur remained a province of the AngloEgyptian Sudan and the independent Republic of the Sudan There are several different explanations for the origins of the present conflict One explanation involves the land disputes between seminomadic livestock herders and those who practice sedentary agriculture 28Water access has also been identified as a major source of the conflict 29 The Darfur crisis is also related to a second conflict In southern Sudan civil war has raged for decades between the northern Arabdominated government and Christian and animist black southerners Yet another origin is conflict between the Islamist Khartoumbased national government and two rebel groups based in Darfur the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement 30 Allegations of apartheidedit In early 1991 nonArabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign segregating Arabs and nonArabs 31 Sudanese Arabs who controlled the government were widely referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudans nonArab citizens The government was accused of deftly manipulating Arab solidarity to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing 32 American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens 33 According to Ayittey In Sudan the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid 34 Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid 35 Alan Dershowitz labeled Sudan an example of a government that actually deserves the appellation apartheid 36 Former Canadian Minister of Justice Irwin Cotler echoed the accusation 37 Timelineedit Beginningedit Flint and de Waal marked the onset of the genocide on 26 February 2003 when a group calling itself the Darfur Liberation Front DLF publicly claimed credit for an attack on Golo the headquarters of Jebel Marra District Prior to this attack however conflict had broken out as rebels attacked police stations army outposts and military convoys and the government engaged in a massive air and land assault on the rebel stronghold in the Marrah Mountains The rebels first military action was a successful attack on an army garrison on 25 February 2002 The government had been aware of a unified rebel movement since an attack on the Golo police station in June 2002 Flint and de Waal date the beginning of the rebellion to 21 July 2001 when a group of Zaghawa and Fur met in Abu Gamra and swore oaths on the Quran to work together to defend against governmentsponsored attacks on their villages Nearly all of Darfurs residents are Muslim including the Janjaweed as well as government leaders in Khartoum 39 On 25 March 2003 the rebels seized the garrison town of Tine along the Chadian border seizing large quantities of supplies and arms Despite a threat by President Omar alBashir to unleash the army the military had little in reserve The army was already deployed both to the south where the Second Sudanese Civil War was drawing to an end and to the east where rebels sponsored by Eritrea were threatening a newly constructed pipeline from the central oilfields to Port Sudan The rebel guerilla tactic of hitandrun raids proved almost impossible for the army untrained in desert operations to counter However its aerial bombardment of rebel positions on the mountain was devastating Arab Janjaweed tribes have been a major player in the conflict At 530 am on 25 April 2003 a joint Sudan Liberation Army SLA and Justice and Equality Movement JEM force in 33 Toyota Land Cruisers entered alFashir and attacked the sleeping garrison In the next four hours four Antonov bombers and helicopter gunships according to the government seven according to the rebels were destroyed on the ground 75 soldiers pilots and technicians were killed and 32 were captured including the commander of the air base a Major General The success of the raid was unprecedented in Sudan in the twenty years of the war in the south the rebel Sudan Peoples Liberation Army SPLA had never before carried out such an operation The alFashir raid was a turning point both militarily and psychologically The armed forces had been humiliated by the raid placing the government in a difficult strategic situation The incompetent armed forces needed to be retrained and redeployed amid concerns about the loyalty of the many Darfurian noncommissioned officers and soldiers Responsibility for prosecuting the war was given to Sudanese military intelligence Nevertheless in the middle months of 2003 rebels won 34 of 38 engagements In May the SLA destroyed a battalion at Kutum killing 500 and taking 300 prisoners in midJuly 250 were killed in a second attack on Tine The SLA began to infiltrate farther east threatening to extend the war into Kordofan Given that the army was consistently losing the war effort switched to emphasize three elements military intelligence the air force and the Janjaweed The latter were armed Baggara herders whom the government had used to suppress a Masalit uprising from 1986 to 1999 The Janjaweed became the center of the new counterinsurgency strategy Though the government consistently denied supporting them military resources were poured into Darfur and the Janjaweed were outfitted as a paramilitary force complete with communication equipment and some artillery The military planners were aware of the probable consequences of such a strategy similar methods undertaken in the Nuba Mountains and around the southern oil fields during the 1990s had resulted in massive human rights violations and forced displacements 2004–2005edit In 2004 Chad brokered negotiations in NDjamena leading to the April 8 Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement between the Sudanese government the JEM and the SLA One group that did not participate in the April ceasefire talks or agreement the National Movement for Reform and Development split from the JEM in April Janjaweed and rebel attacks continued despite the ceasefire and the African Union AU formed a Ceasefire Commission CFC to monitor its observance Darfur refugee camp in Chad 2005 In August the African Union sent 150 Rwandan troops to protect the ceasefire monitors However it soon became apparent that 150 troops would not be enough and they were subsequently joined by 150 Nigerian troops On 18 September the United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 1564 declaring that the Sudan government had not met its commitments and expressing concern at helicopter attacks and assaults by the Janjaweed It welcomed the intention of the African Union to enhance its monitoring mission and urged all member states to support such efforts During April 2005 after the Sudan government signed a ceasefire agreement with Sudan Peoples Liberation Army which led to the end of the Second Sudanese Civil War the African Union Mission in Sudan AMIS force was increased by 600 troops and 80 military observers In July the force was increased by about 3300 with a budget of 220 million dollars In April 2005 AMIS was increased to about 7000 The scale of the crisis led to warnings of an imminent disaster with United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan warning about the risk of genocide The scale of the Janjaweed campaign led to comparisons with the Rwandan Genocide a parallel denied by the Sudanese government Independent observers noted that the tactics which included dismemberment and killing of noncombatants including young children and infants were more akin to the ethnic cleansing used in the Yugoslav wars and warned that the regions remoteness meant that hundreds of thousands of people were effectively cut off from aid The Brusselsbased International Crisis Group had reported in May 2004 that over 350000 people could potentially die as a result of starvation and disease 43 AMIS soldiers from Rwanda preparing to depart to Darfur in 2005 On 10 July 2005 ExSPLA leader John Garang was sworn in as Sudans vicepresident 44 However on 30 July Garang died in a helicopter crash 45 Despite improved security talks between the various rebels in the Darfur region progressed slowly An attack on the Chadian town of Adré near the Sudanese border led to the death of 300 rebels in December Sudan was blamed for the attack which was the second in the region in three days 46 Escalating tensions led the government of Chad to declare its hostility toward Sudan and to call for Chadians to mobilise against the common enemy 47 See ChadSudan conflict 2006edit Main article Darfur Peace Agreement Minni Minnawi with U S President George W Bush after he signed the May agreement On 5 May 2006 the Sudanese government signed the Darfur Peace Agreement48 along with the faction of the SLA led by Minni Minnawi However the agreement was rejected by the smaller Justice and Equality Movement and a rival faction of the SLA led by Abdul Wahid al Nur 2449 The accord was orchestrated by chief negotiator Salim Ahmed Salim working on behalf of the African Union U S Deputy Secretary of State Robert B Zoellick AU representatives and other foreign officials operating in Abuja Nigeria The 115page agreement included agreements on national and state powersharing demilitarization of the Janjaweed and other militias an integration of SLMA and JEM troops into the Sudanese Armed Forces and police a system of federal wealthsharing for the promotion of Darfurian economic interests a referendum on the future status of Darfur and measures to promote the flow of humanitarian aid 2450 Representatives of the African Union Nigeria Libya the USA the UK the UN the EU the Arab League Egypt Canada Norway and the Netherlands served as witnesses 24 July and August 2006 saw renewed fighting with international aid organizations considering leaving due to attacks against their personnel Annan called for 18000 international peacekeepers in Darfur to replace the 7000man AMIS force 5152 In one incident at Kalma seven women who ventured out of a refugee camp to gather firewood were gangraped beaten and robbed by the Janjaweed When they had finished the attackers stripped them naked and jeered at them as they fled 53 In a private meeting on 18 August Hédi Annabi Assistant SecretaryGeneral for Peacekeeping Operations warned that Sudan appeared to be preparing for a major military offensive 54 The warning came a day after UN Commission on Human Rights special investigator Sima Samar stated that Sudans efforts remained poor despite the May Agreement 55 On 19 August Sudan reiterated its opposition to replacing AMIS with a UN force56 resulting in the US issuing a threat to Sudan over the potential consequences 57 On 25 August Sudan rejected attending a United Nations Security Council UNSC meeting to explain its plan to send 10000 Sudanese soldiers to Darfur instead of the proposed 20000 UN peacekeeping force 58 The Security Council announced it would hold the meeting despite Sudans absence 59 Also on 24 August the International Rescue Committee reported that hundreds of women were raped and sexually assaulted around the Kalma refugee camp during the previous several weeks60 and that the Janjaweed were reportedly using rape to cause women to be humiliated and ostracised by their own communities 61 On 25 August the head of the U S State Departments Bureau of African Affairs Assistant Secretary Jendayi Frazer warned that the region faced a security crisis unless the UN peacekeeping force deployed 62 On 26 August two days before the UNSC meeting and Frazer was due to arrive in Khartoum Paul Salopek a U S National Geographic Magazine journalist appeared in court in Darfur facing charges of espionage he had crossed into the country illegally from Chad circumventing the Sudanese governments official restrictions on foreign journalists He was later released after direct negotiation with President alBashir 63 This came a month after Tomo Križnar a Slovenian presidential envoy was sentenced to two years in prison for spying 64 Proposed UN peacekeeping forceedit See also United Nations Security Council Resolution 1706 On 31 August 2006 the UNSC approved a resolution to send a new peacekeeping force of 17300 to the region 65 Sudan expressed strong opposition to the resolution 66 On 1 September African Union officials reported that Sudan had launched a major offensive in Darfur killing more than 20 people and displacing over 1000 67 On 5 September Sudan asked the existing AU force to leave by the end of the month adding that they have no right to transfer this assignment to the United Nations or any other party This right rests with the government of Sudan 68 On 4 September in a move not viewed as surprising Chads president Idriss Déby voiced support for the UN peacekeeping force 69 The AU whose mandate expired on 30 September 2006 confirmed that AMIS would leave 70 The next day however a senior US State Department official told reporters that the AU force might remain past the deadline 71 Autumnedit On 8 September António Guterres head of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees said Darfur faced a humanitarian catastrophe 72 On 12 September Sudans European Union envoy Pekka Haavisto claimed that the Sudanese army was bombing civilians in Darfur 73 A World Food Programme official reported that food aid had been blocked from reaching at least 355000 people 74 Annan said the tragedy in Darfur has reached a critical moment It merits this councils closest attention and urgent action 75 On 14 September the leader of the Sudan Liberation Movement Minni Minnawi stated that he did not object to the UN peacekeeping force rejecting the Sudanese governments view that such a deployment would be an act of Western invasion Minnawi claimed that AMIS can do nothing because the AU mandate is very limited 76 Khartoum remained opposed to UN involvement with AlBashir depicting it as a colonial plan and stating that we do not want Sudan to turn into another Iraq 77 On 2 October the AU announced that it would extend its presence until 31 December 2006 7879 Two hundred UN troops were sent to reinforce the AU force 80 On 6 October the UNSC voted to extend the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan until 30 April 2007 81 On 9 October the Food and Agriculture Organization listed Darfur as the most pressing food emergency out of the forty countries listed on its Crop Prospects and Food Situation report 82 On 10 October the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Louise Arbour claimed that the Sudanese government had prior knowledge of attacks by Janjaweed militias in Buram South Darfur the month before in which hundreds of civilians were killed 83 Children in the camps are encouraged to confront their psychological scars The clay figures depict an attack by Janjaweed On 12 October Nigerian Foreign Minister Joy Ogwu arrived in Darfur for a twoday visit She urged the Sudanese government to accept the UN proposal Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo spoke against standing by and seeing genocide taking place in Darfur 84 On 13 October US President George W Bush imposed further sanctions against those deemed complicit in the atrocities under the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 The measures were said to strengthen existing sanctions by prohibiting US citizens from engaging in oilrelated transactions with Sudan although US companies had been prohibited from doing business with Sudan since 1997 freezing the assets of complicit parties and denying them entry to the US 85 The lack of funding and equipment for the AU mission meant that the work of aid workers in Darfur was severely limited by fighting Some warned that the humanitarian situation could deteriorate to levels seen in 2003 and 2004 when UN officials called Darfur the worlds worst humanitarian crisis 78 On 22 October the Sudan government told UN envoy Jan Pronk to leave the country within three days Pronk the senior UN official in the country had been heavily criticized by the Sudanese army after he posted a description of several recent military defeats in Darfur to his personal blog 86 On 1 November the US announced that it would formulate an international plan which it hoped the Sudanese government would find more palatable 87 On 9 November senior Sudanese presidential advisor Nafie Ali Nafie told reporters that his government was prepared to start unconditional talks with the National Redemption Front NRF rebel alliance but noted he saw little use for a new peace agreement The NRF which had rejected the May Agreement and sought a new peace agreement did not comment 88 In late 2006 Darfur Arabs started their own rebel group the Popular Forces Troops and announced on 6 December that they had repulsed an assault by the Sudanese army at KasZallingi the previous day They were the latest of numerous Darfur Arab groups to oppose the government since 2003 some of which had signed political accords with rebel movements The same period saw an example of a tribebased split within the Arab forces when relations between the farming Terjem and nomadic camelherding Mahria tribes became tense Terjem leaders accused the Mahria of kidnapping a Terjem boy while Mahria leaders said the Terjem had been stealing their animals Ali Mahamoud Mohammed the wali or governor of South Darfur said the fighting began in December when the Mahria drove their camels south in a seasonal migration trampling through Terjem territory near the Bulbul River Fighting resumed in July 2007 89 Proposed compromise UN force and Sudanese offensiveedit On 17 November reports of a potential deal to place a compromise peacekeeping force in Darfur were announced90 but would later appear to have been rejected by Sudan 91 The UN claimed on 18 November that Sudan had agreed to the deployment of UN peacekeepers 92 Sudans Foreign Minister Lam Akol stated that there should be no talk about a mixed force and that the UNs role should be restricted to technical support Also on 18 November the AU reported that Sudanese military and Sudanesebacked militias had launched a ground and air operation in the region that resulted in about 70 civilian deaths The AU stated that this was a flagrant violation of security agreements 93 On 25 November a spokesperson for UN High Commissioner for Human Rights accused the Sudanese government of having committed a deliberate and unprovoked attack against civilians in Sirba on 11 November which claimed the lives of at least 30 people The Commissioners statement maintained that contrary to the government’s claim it appears that the Sudanese Armed Forces launched a deliberate and unprovoked attack on civilians and their property in Sirba and that this also involved extensive and wanton destruction and looting of civilian property 94 2007edit Displaced persons with water tank in Geneina West Darfur in 2007 According to the Save Darfur Coalition New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson and alBashir agreed to a ceasefire whereby the Sudanese government and rebel groups will cease hostilities for a period of 60 days while they work towards a lasting peace 95 In addition the Save Darfur press release stated that the agreement included a number of concessions to improve humanitarian aid and media access to Darfur Despite the formality of a ceasefire there have been further media reports of killings and other violence 9697 On Sunday 15 April 2007 African Union peacekeepers were targeted and killed 98The New York Times reported that a confidential United Nations report says the government of Sudan is flying arms and heavy military equipment into Darfur in violation of Security Council resolutions and painting Sudanese military planes white to disguise them as United Nations or African Union aircraft 99 On 31 March 2007 Janjaweed militiamen killed up to 400 people in the eastern border region of Chad near Sudan The border villages of Tiero and Marena were encircled and then fired upon The women were robbed and the men shot according to the UNHCR Many of those who survived the initial attack ended up dying due to exhaustion and dehydration often while fleeing 100 On 14 April 2007 more attacks were reported by the UNHCR in Tiero and Marena 101 On 18 April President Bush gave a speech at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum criticizing the Sudanese government and threatened further sanctions if the situation did not improve 102 Sudans humanitarian affairs minister Ahmed Haroun and a Janjaweed militia leader known as Ali Kushayb were charged by the International Criminal Court with 51 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity Ahmed Haroun said he did not feel guilty his conscience was clear and that he was ready to defend himself 103 AalBashir and Deby signed a peace agreement on 3 May 2007 aimed at reducing tension between their countries 104 The accord was brokered by Saudi Arabia It asserted that neither country would harbor train or fund armed movements opposed to the other Reuters reported that Debys fears that Nouris UFDD may have been receiving Saudi as well as Sudanese support could have pushed him to sign the Saudimediated pact with Bashir Colin ThomasJensen an expert on Chad and Darfur at the International Crisis Group thinktank expressed doubts as to whether this new deal will lead to any genuine thaw in relations or improvement in the security situation Chadian rebel Union of Forces for Democracy and Development UFDD which had fought a hitandrun war against Debys forces in eastern Chad since 2006 stated that the Saudibacked peace deal would not stop its military campaign 105 Oxfam announced on 17 June that it would permanently pull out of Gereida the largest refugee camp holding more than 130000 The agency cited inaction by local authorities from the Sudan Liberation Movement SLM which controls the region in addressing security concerns and violence against aid workers An employee of the NGO Action by Churches Together was murdered in June in West Darfur Vehicle hijackings also made them consider leaving 106 BBC News reported that a huge underground lake had been found This find could eliminate the competition for water resources 107 France and Britain announced they would push for a UN resolution to dispatch African Union and United Nations peacekeepers to Darfur and would push for an immediate ceasefire in Darfur and are prepared to provide substantial economic aid as soon as a ceasefire makes it possible 108 A 14 July 2007 article noted that in the past two months up to 75000 Arabs from Chad and Niger had crossed into Darfur Most have been relocated by Sudanese government to former villages of displaced nonArab people 109 A hybrid UNAU force was finally approved on 31 July with the unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 UNAMID was to take over from AMIS by 31 December at the latest and haf an initial mandate up to 31 July 2008 110 On 31 July Mahria gunmen surrounded mourners at the funeral of an important Terjem sheik and killed 60 with rocketpropelled grenades RPGs and beltfed machine guns 89 From 3–5 August a conference was held in Arusha to unite the rebel groups to streamline the subsequent peace negotiations with the government Most senior rebel leaders attended with the notable exception of Abdul Wahid al Nur who headed a rather small splinter group of the SLAM that he had initially founded in 2003111 was considered to be the representatives of a large part of the displaced Fur people His absence was damaging to the peace talks 112 International officials stated that there is no John Garang in Darfur referring to the leader of the negotiating team of South Sudan who was universally accepted by the various South Sudanese rebel groups 113 The participants were Gamali Galaleiddine114 Khalil Abdalla Adam Salah Abu Surra Khamis Abdallah Abakar Ahmed Abdelshafi Abdalla Yahya Khalil Ibrahim of the Justice and Equality Movement and Ahmed Ibrahim Ali Diraige Closeddoor meetings between the AUUN and rebel leaders as well as among rebel leaders took place 115 Eight more participants arrived on 4 August including Jar elNeby Salah Adam Isaac and Suleiman Marajan116 while the SLM Unity faction boycotted the talks because the Sudanese government had threatened to arrest Suleiman Jamous if he left the hospital 117 The rebel leaders aimed to unify their positions and demands which included compensation for the victims and autonomy for Darfur 114 They eventually reached agreement on joint demands including power and wealth sharing security land and humanitarian issues 118 In the months through August Arab tribes that had worked together in the Janjaweed militia began falling out among themselves and further splintered Thousands of Terjem and Mahria gunmen traveled hundreds of miles to fight in the strategic Bulbul river valley Farther south Habanniya and Salamat tribes clashed The fighting did not result in as much killing as in 2003 and 2004 United Nations officials said the groups might be trying to seize land before peacekeepers arrived 89 On 18 September JEM stated that if the peace talks with Khartoum should fail they would step up their demands from selfdetermination to independence 119 On 30 September the rebels overran an AMIS base killing at least 12 peacekeepers in the heaviest loss of life and biggest attack on the African Mission during a raid at the end of Ramadan season 120 SLM combatants Peace talks started on 27 October in Sirte Libya The following groups attended121 Justice and Equality Movement splinters Justice and Equality Movement–Collective Leadership led by Bahr Idriss Abu Garda Justice and Equality Movement–Azraq led by Idriss Ibrahim Azraq National Movement for Reform and Development led by Khalil Abdullah Revolutionary Democratic Forces Front led by Salah Abu Surrah United Revolutionary Force Front led by Alhadi Agabeldour Sudan Liberation Movement–G19 led by Khamees Abdullah Sudan Federal Democratic Alliance led by Ahmed Ibrahim Diraige The following groups did not attend Justice and Equality Movement led by Khalil Ibrahim they object to the presence of rebel groups they say had no constituency and no place at the table Sudan Liberation Movement Abdel Wahed led by Abdel Wahed Mohamed elNur the group has few forces but its leader is highly respected refused to attend until a force was deployed to stem the Darfur violence Sudan Liberation Movement–Unity originally led by Abdallah Yehya includes many other prominent figures Sherif Harir Abu Bakr Kadu Ahmed Kubur the group with the largest number of rebel fighters object for the same reason as JEM Ahmed Abdel Shafi a notable rebel enjoying strong support from the Fur tribe Faced with a boycott from the most important rebel factions the talks were rebranded as an advanced consultation phase with official talks likely to start in November or December 122 On 15 November nine rebel groups – six SLM factions the Democratic Popular Front the Sudanese Revolutionary Front and the Justice and Equality Movement–Field Revolutionary Command – signed a Charter of Unification and agreed to operate under the name of SLMA henceforth 123 On 30 November it was announced that Darfurs rebel movements had united into two large groups and were now ready to negotiate in an orderly manner with the government 124 2008edit Main article 2008 invasion of Khartoum and Omdurman JEM rebels attacked the Sudanese capital of Khartoum in 2008 A fresh governmentmilitia offensive trapped thousands of refugees along the Chadian border the rebels and humanitarian workers said on 20 February 125 As of 21 February the total dead in Darfur stood at 450000 with an estimated 3245000 people displaced On 10 May 2008 Sudanese government soldiers and Darfur rebels clashed in the city of Omdurman opposite the capital of Khartoum over the control of a military headquarters 126 They also raided a police base from which they stole police vehicles A Sudanese police spokesperson said that the leader of the assailants Mohamed Saleh Garbo and his intelligence chief Mohamed Nur AlDeen were killed in the clash Witnesses said that heavy gunfire could be heard in the west of Sudans capital Sudanese troops backed by tanks artillery and helicopter gunships were immediately deployed to Omdurman and fighting raged for several hours After seizing the strategic military airbase at WadiSayedna the Sudanese soldiers eventually defeated the rebels A JEM force headed to the AlIngaz bridge to cross the White Nile into Khartoum By late afternoon Sudanese TV claimed that the rebels had been completely repulsed while showing live images of burnt vehicles and corpses on the streets 127 The government imposed a curfew in Khartoum from 5 pm to 6 am while aid agencies told their workers in the capital to stay indoors Darfur men in 2008 Some 93 soldiers and 13 policemen were killed along with 30 civilians in the attack on Khartoum and Omdurman Sudanese forces confirmed that they found the bodies of 90 rebels and had spotted dozens more strewn outside the city limits While Sudanese authorities claimed that up to 400 rebels could have been killed the rebels stated that they lost 45 fighters dead or wounded Sudanese authorities also claimed to have destroyed 40 rebel vehicles and captured 17 2009edit A UN Peacekeeper in the Abu Shouk IDP Camp September 2009 General Martin Agwai head of the joint African UnionUnited Nations mission in Darfur said the war was over in the region although lowlevel disputes remained There was still Banditry localised issues people trying to resolve issues over water and land at a local level But real war as such I think we are over that he said 128 2010 to 2012edit In December 2010 representatives of the Liberation and Justice Movement an umbrella organisation of ten rebel groups formed in February 2010129 started a fresh round of talks with the Sudanese Government in Doha A new rebel group the Sudanese Alliance Resistance Forces in Darfur was formed and JEM planned further talks 130 Talks ended on 19 December with agreement only on basic principles these included a regional authority and a referendum on autonomy The possibility of a Darfuri VicePresident was discussed 131132 In January 2011 the leader of the Liberation and Justice Movement Dr Tijani Sese stated that the movement had accepted the core proposals of the Darfur peace document as proposed by the mediators in Doha The proposals included a 300000000 compensation package for victims of atrocities in Darfur and special courts to conduct trials of persons accused of human rights violations Proposals for a new Darfur Regional Authority were included This authority would have an executive council of 18 ministers and would remain in place for five years The current three Darfur states and state governments would continue to exist during this period 133134 In February the Sudanese Government rejected the idea of a single region headed by a vicepresident from the region 135 On 29 January the LJM and JEM leaders issued a joint statement affirming their commitment to the Doha negotiations and intention to attend the Doha forum on 5 February The Sudanese government postponed decision to attend the forum due to beliefs that an internal peace process without the involvement of rebel groups might be possible 136 Later in February the Sudanese Government agreed to return to Doha with a view to complete a new peace agreement by the end of that month 137 On 25 February both LJM and JEM announced that they had rejected the peace document proposed by the mediators in Doha The main sticking points were the issues of a Darfuri vicepresident and compensation for victims The Sudanese government did not comment on the peace document 138 On 9 March it was announced that two more states would be established in Darfur Central Darfur around Zalingei and Eastern Darfur around Ed Daein The rebel groups protested and stated that this was a bid to further divide Darfurs influence 139 Advising both the LJM and JEM during the Doha peace negotiations was the Public International Law & Policy Group PILPG Led by Dr Paul Williams and Matthew T Simpson PILPGs team provided legal support In June a new Darfur Peace Agreement 2011 was proposed by the Doha mediators This agreement was to supersede the Abuja Agreement of 2005 and when signed would halt preparations for a Darfur status referendum 140 The proposed document included provisions for a Darfuri VicePresident and an administrative structure that included three states and a strategic regional authority the Darfur Regional Authority 141 The agreement was signed by the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement on 14 July 2011 142 Little progress occurred after September 2012 and the situation slowly worsened and violence was escalating 143 The population of refugees in IDP camps also increased 144 2013edit Progovernment militia in Darfur 2013 A donors conference in Doha pledged US3 6 billion to help rebuild Darfur The conference was criticised in the region that the Sudan Liberation Army Minni Minnawi rebels had taken According to the groups Hussein Minnawi Ashma village and another town were close to the South Darfur capital of Nyala 145 On 27 April following weeks of fighting a coalition that included SLA and JEM said that they had taken Um Rawaba in North Kordofan outside Darfur and that they were headed for Khartoum to topple the president The head of an SLA faction Abdel Wahid Mohammed alNur called it a significant shift in the war 146 An estimated 300000 were displaced by violence from January through May 147 In North Darfur the Rezeigat tribe and the Beni Hussein group signed a peace deal during July after an eruption of violence between the two groups killed hundreds Later in July the Misseriya and Salamat Arab tribes announced a ceasefire after battles killed over 200 people The UN security counsel also announced a review of its UNAMID mission 147 During the first week of August the Maalia claimed the Rezeigat had killed five members of their tribe in the southeastern region of Adila They responded by seizing 400 Rizeigat cattle on 6 August Community leaders intervened to prevent escalation When the Maalia failed to return the cattle violence broke out on 10 August 148 The Rezeigat attacked and reportedly destroyed a Maaliya compound 147 In the battle 77 Maaliya and 36 Rezeigat were killed and another 200 people were injured 148 Both sides said Land Cruiser vehicles were used in the battle The Maaliya accused the Rezeigat of attacking and burning villages while employing heavy weaponry On 11 August the fighting spread to several other areas in southeastern Darfur The violence reportedly arose over a land dispute 147 2014edit On 19 March peacekeepers said they had received recent reports of villages that were attacked and burned after the UN expressed concern over the increasing number of internally displaced persons UNAMID said that the attacks were in Hashaba about 100 kilometers northwest of the city AlFashir the state capital of North Darfur 149 In November local media reported that 200 women and girls had been raped by Sudanese soldiers in Tabit Sudan denied it and did not permit the UN who said their first inquiry was inconclusive in part due to the heavy presence of military and police to make another 150 An investigation by Human Rights Watch HRW released in February said 221 were raped by government soldiers in a mass rape that could constitute crimes against humanity Witnesses reported three separate operations were carried out in one and a half days Property was looted men arrested residents beaten and women and girls raped Most of the towns population are Fur people It had been controlled by rebel forces previously but HRW found no evidence that the rebel fighters were in or close to the village when it was attacked 151 3300 villages were destroyed in 2014 in attacks on civilians according to the UN Panel of Experts Government forces or those aligned with them were behind most attacks There were more than 400000 attacks during the first ten months of the year The report said that it was highly probable that civilian communities were targeted as a result of their actual or perceived affiliations with armed opposition groups and that such attacks were carried out with impunity 152 2015edit This section is empty You can help by adding to it September 2016 2016edit In September 2016 the Sudanese government reportedly launched chemical weapon attacks on civilian populations in Darfur killing at least 250 people the majority of the victims were children It is believed that the munitions contained mustard gas or other blister agents 153 Janjaweed participationedit Destroyed villages August 2004 The well armed Janjaweed quickly gained an advantage over rebel factions By the spring of 2004 several thousand people – mostly from the nonArab population – had been killed and as many as a million more had been driven from their homes causing a major humanitarian crisis The crisis took on an international dimension when over 100000 refugees poured into neighboring Chad pursued by militiamen who clashed with Chadian government forces along the border More than 70 militiamen and 10 Chadian soldiers were killed in one gun battle in April A United Nations observer team reported that nonArab villages were singled out while Arab villages were left untouched The 23 Fur villages in the Shattaya Administrative Unit have been completely depopulated looted and burnt to the ground the team observed several such sites driving through the area for two days Meanwhile dotted alongside these charred locations are unharmed populated and functioning Arab settlements In some locations the distance between a destroyed Fur village and an Arab village is less than 500 meters 154 A 2011 study examined 1000 interviews with black African participants who fled from 22 village clusters to various refugee camps in 2003 and 2004 The study found 1 the frequency of hearing racial epithets during an attack was 70 higher when it was led by the Janjaweed alone compared to official police forces it was 80 higher when the Janjaweed and the Sudanese Government attacked together 2 the risk of displacement was nearly 110 higher during a joint attack compared to when the police or Janjaweed acted alone and 85 higher when Janjaweed forces attacked alone compared to when the attack was only perpetrated by government forces 3 attacks on food and water supplies made it 129 more likely for inhabitants to be displaced compared to attacks that involved house burnings or killings 4 perpetrators knew and took special advantage of the susceptibility of Darfur residents to attacks focused on basic resources This vulnerability came against the backdrop of increased regional desertification 155 Rape of women and young girlsedit Main article Rape during the Darfur genocide Internally displaced persons camp Immediately after the Janjaweed entered the conflict the rape of women and young girls often by multiple militiamen and often throughout entire nights began to be reported at a staggering rate 156 Children as young as 2 years old were reported victims while mothers were assaulted in front of their children 157 Young women were attacked so violently that they were unable to walk following the attack 158 NonArab people were reportedly raped by Janjaweed militiamen as a result of the Sudanese governments goal of completely eliminating the presence of black Africans and nonArabs from Darfur 159 The Washington Post Foreign Service interviewed verified victims of the rapes and recorded that Arabic terms such as abid and zurga were used which mean slave and black One victim Sawelah Suliman was told by her assailant Black girl you are too dark You are like a dog We want to make a light baby 160 In an 88page report victims from Darfur have also accused the Rapid Support Forces of rape and assault as recently as 2015 161 Mortality figuresedit A mother with her sick baby at Abu Shouk IDP camp in North Darfur Multiple casualty estimates have been published since the war began ranging from roughly 10000 civilians Sudan government to hundreds of thousands 162 In September 2004 the World Health Organization estimated that there had been 50000 deaths in Darfur since the beginning of the conflict an 18month period mostly due to starvation An updated estimate the following month put the number of deaths for the 6month period from March to October 2004 due to starvation and disease at 70000 These figures were criticized because they only considered short periods and did not include deaths from violence 163 A more recent British Parliamentary Report estimated that over 300000 people had died164 and others have estimated even more In March 2005 the UNs Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland estimated that 10000 were dying each month excluding deaths due to ethnic violence 165 An estimated 2 7 million people had at that time been displaced from their homes mostly seeking refuge in camps in Darfurs major towns 166 Two hundred thousand had fled to neighboring Chad Reports of violent deaths compiled by the UN indicate between 6000 and 7000 fatalities from 2004 to 2007 167 In May 2005 the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters CRED of the School of Public Health of the Université catholique de Louvain in Brussels Belgium published an analysis of mortality in Darfur Their estimate stated that from September 2003 to January 2005 between 98000 and 181000 persons had died in Darfur including 63000 to 146000 excess deaths 168 In August 2010 Dr Eric Reeves argued that total mortality from all violent causes direct and indirect at that point in the conflict exceeded 500000 His analysis took account of all previous mortality data and studies including that by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster cite httpsudanreeves org20100807quantifyinggenocidedarfurmortalityupdateaugust62010 169 The UN disclosed on 22 April 2008 that it might have underestimated the Darfur death toll by nearly 50 170 In July 2009 The Christian Science Monitor published an oped stating that many of the published mortality rates have been misleading because they include a large number of people who had died of disease and malnutrition as well as those who died from direct violence 171 In January 2010 the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters published an article in a special issue of The Lancet The article entitled Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict estimated with 95 confidence that the excess number of deaths is between 178258 and 461520 with a mean of 298271 with 80 of these due to disease 172 International responseedit Main article International response to the Darfur conflict U S President George W Bush speaking to the UN General Assembly on the crisis in Darfur September 21 2004 International attention to the Darfur genocide largely began with reports by Amnesty International in July 2003 and the International Crisis Group in December 2003 However widespread media coverage did not start until the outgoing United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Sudan Mukesh Kapila called Darfur the worlds greatest humanitarian crisis in March 2004 173 Organizations such as STAND A Student AntiGenocide Coalition later under the umbrella of Genocide Intervention Network and the Save Darfur Coalition emerged and became particularly active in the areas of engaging the United States Congress and President on the issue and pushing for divestment initially launched by Adam Sterling under the auspices of the Sudan Divestment Task Force The Save Darfur Coalition advocacy group coordinated a large rally in New York in April 2006 In May 2009 the Mandate Darfur was canceled because the Sudanese government is obstructing the safe passage of Darfurian delegates from Sudan 174 The Mandate was a conference that would have brought together 300 representatives from different regions of Darfurs civil society 174 The conference planned was to be held in Addis Ababa sometime in early May International Criminal Courtedit In March 2005 the UN Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court taking into account the report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur authorized by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004 but without mentioning specific crimes 175 Two permanent members of the Security Council the United States and China abstained from the vote on the referral resolution 176 In April 2007 the Judges of the International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior Ahmed Haroun and a Janjaweed leader Ali Kushayb for crimes against humanity and war crimes 177 The Sudan Government said that the ICC had no jurisdiction to try Sudanese citizens and that it would not surrender the two men 178 On 14 July 2008 the Prosecutor filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudans incumbent President Omar alBashir including three counts of genocide five of crimes against humanity and two of murder The Prosecutor claimed that Mr alBashir masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity Leaders from three Darfur tribes sued ICC prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo for libel defamation and igniting hatred and tribalism 179 After an arrest warrant was issued for the Sudanese president in March 2009 the Prosecutor appealed to add genocide charges However the PreTrial Chamber found that there was no reasonable ground to support the contention that he had a specific intent to commit genocide dolus specialis which is an intention to destroy in whole or in part a protected group The definition adopted by the PreTrial Chamber is the definition of the Genocide Convention the Rome Statute and some ICTY cases On 3 February 2010 the Appeals Chamber of the ICC found that the PreTrial Chamber had applied an erroneous standard of proof when evaluating the evidence submitted by the Prosecutor and that the Prosecutors application for a warrant of arrest on the genocide charges should be sent back to the PreTrial Chamber to review based on the correct legal standard 180 In July 2010 alBashir was charged with three counts of genocide in Darfur by the International Criminal Court for orchestrating the Darfur genocide 181 AlBashir was the first incumbent head of state charged with crimes under the Rome Statute 182 He rejected the charges and said Whoever has visited Darfur met officials and discovered their ethnicities and tribes will know that all of these things are lies 183 It is expected that alBashir will not face trial in The Hague until he is apprehended in a nation which accepts ICC jurisdiction as Sudan is not a party to the Rome Statute which it signed but did not ratify 184 Payam Akhavan a professor of international law at McGill University in Montreal and a former war crimes prosecutor says although he may not go to trial He will effectively be in prison within the Sudan itself AlBashir now is not going to be able to leave the Sudan without facing arrest 185 The Prosecutor warned that authorities could arrest the President if he enters international airspace The Sudanese government has announced that the Presidential plane would be accompanied by jet fighters 186 However the Arab League announced solidarity with alBashir Since the warrant he has visited Qatar and Egypt The African Union also condemned the charges Some analysts think that the ICC indictment is counterproductive and harms the peace process Only days after the ICC indictment alBashir expelled 13 international aid organizations from Darfur and disbanded three domestic aid organizations 187 In the aftermath of the expulsions conditions in the displaced camps deteriorated 188 Previous ICC indictments such as the arrest warrants of the LRA leadership in the ongoing war in northern Uganda were also accused of harming peace processes by criminalizing one side of a war 189 Foreign support for the Sudanese governmentedit alBashir sought the assistance of nonwestern countries after the West led by America imposed sanctions against him He said From the first day our policy was clear To look eastward toward China Malaysia India Pakistan Indonesia and even Korea and Japan even if the Western influence upon some of these countries is strong We believe that the Chinese expansion was natural because it filled the space left by Western governments the United States and international funding agencies The success of the Sudanese experiment in dealing with China without political conditions or pressures encouraged other African countries to look toward China 190 In 2007 Amnesty International issued a report191192193 accusing China and Russia of supplying arms ammunition and related equipment to Sudan some of which the government may have transferred to Darfur in violation of a UN arms embargo The report claims that Sudan imported 1020 combat aircraft from China in the earlymid2000s including three A5 Fantan fighters that have been sighted in Darfur 194 The report provides evidence that the Sudan Air Force conducted indiscriminate aerial bombings of villages in Darfur and eastern Chad using ground attack fighters and repurposed Antonov transport planes However it does not specify whether the ground attack fighters in question are those purchased from China in the earlymid2000s and the Antonovs origin remains unclear The report also lists seven Soviet or Russianmade Mi24 Hind gunships that had been deployed to Darfur though without specifying which country sold them to Sudan or when 195 While noting that Russia sold arms worth tens of millions of dollars to Sudan in 2005 alone196 the report does not specifically identify any weapons sold to Sudan by Russia after the outbreak of the Darfur conflict or after the imposition of the UNSC ban on arms transfers to Darfur and it does not provide any evidence that any such weapons were deployed to Darfur The NGO Human Rights First claimed that over 90 of the light weapons currently being imported by Sudan and used in the conflict are from China 197 Human rights advocates and opponents of the Sudanese government portray Chinas role in providing weapons and aircraft as a cynical attempt to obtain oil just as colonial powers once supplied African chieftains with the military means to maintain control as they extracted natural resources 198199 According to Chinas critics China threatened to use its veto on the U N Security Council to protect Khartoum from sanctions and was able to water down every resolution on Darfur in order to protect its interests 200 Accusations of the supply of weapons from China which were then transferred to Darfur by the Sudanese government in violation of the UN arms embargo continued in 2010 201 Sarah Wykes a senior campaigner at Global Witness an NGO that campaigns for better natural resource governance says Sudan has purchased about 100m in arms from China and has used these weapons against civilians in Darfur 199 According to the report Following the Thread Arms and Ammunition Tracing in Sudan and South Sudan released in May 2014 by the Swiss research group Small Arms Survey Over the period 2001–12 Khartoum’s reports to UN Comtrade reveal significant fluctuation in annual conventional arms imports The majority of the Sudanese government’s total selfreported imports of small arms and light weapons their ammunition and ‘conventional weapons’ over the period originated in China 58 per cent followed by Iran 13 per cent St Vincent and the Grenadines 9 per cent and Ukraine 8 per cent 202 The report found that Chinese weapons were pervasive among most parties to the Sudanese conflicts including the war in Darfur but identified few if any weapons of Russian origin The section Chinese weapons and ammunition receives 20 pages in the report whereas the only mention of Russian arms is to be found in the sentence the majority of mines in South Sudan have been of Chinese and SovietRussian origin China and Russia denied they had broken UN sanctions China has a close relationship with Sudan and increased its military cooperation with the government in early 2007 Because of Sudans plentiful supply of oil China considers good relations with Sudan to be a strategic necessity 203204205 China has direct commercial interests in Sudans oil China’s stateowned company CNPC controls between 60 and 70 percent of Sudan’s total oil production Additionally it owns the largest single share 40 percent of Sudan’s national oil company Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company 206 China consistently opposed economic and nonmilitary sanctions on Sudan 207 In March 2007 threats of boycotting the Olympic games came from French presidential candidate François Bayrou in an effort to stop Chinas support 208209 Sudan divestment efforts concentrated on PetroChina the national petroleum company with extensive investments in Sudan 210 Criticism of international responseedit Gérard Prunier a scholar specializing in African conflicts argued that the worlds most powerful countries have limited themselves to expressing concern and demand for the United Nations to take action The UN lacking funding and military support of the wealthy countries initially left the African Union to deploy a token force without a mandate to protect civilians 173 On 16 October 2006 Minority Rights Group MRG published a critical report challenging that the UN and the great powers could have prevented the crisis and that few lessons appeared to have been drawn from the Rwandan Genocide MRGs executive director Mark Lattimer stated that this level of crisis the killings rape and displacement could have been foreseen and avoided Darfur would just not be in this situation had the UN systems got its act together after Rwanda their action was too little too late 211 On 20 October 120 genocide survivors of The Holocaust and the Cambodian and Rwandan Genocides backed by six aid agencies submitted an open letter to the European Union calling on them to do more proposing a UN peacekeeping force as the only viable option 212 In the mediaedit Watchers of the Sky a 2014 documentary by Edet Belzberg interviews former journalist and United States Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power about the war in Darfur Also featured is Luis Moreno Ocampo former ICC jurist and lead prosecutor on the ICC investigation in Darfur 213214 Brutality of militias violence used by armed forces corruption and human right abuse were also shown in ER television series e g episodes 12x19 12x20 and in The Devil Came on Horseback215 an excellent documentary made in 2007 See alsoedit Aegis Students an international studentbased genocide prevention movement Banu Hilal Bibliography of the Darfur conflict Boswells School Breidjing Camp Chadian Civil War 2005–10 Command responsibility Genocides in history List of civil wars List of famines List of wars 2003–2010 List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll Lost Boys of Sudan Second Sudanese Civil War Slavery in Sudan Team Darfur a Known as the National Redemption Front prior to 2011 b Signed the Doha Darfur Peace Agreement in 2011 17 c Number does not represent the number of soldiers stationed in Darfur but the total number of military personnel 1218 Referencesedit a b c Three Darfur factions establish new rebel group Sudan Tribune 7 July 2017 Retrieved 20 July 2017 Al Bashir threatens to ‘disarm Darfur rebels’ in South Sudan Radio Dabanga 29 April 2015 Afrol News Eritrea Chad accused of aiding Sudan rebels Archived 29 June 2012 at Archive is 7 de septiembre de 2007 Archived copy Archived from the original on 5 August 2012 Retrieved 20151124 Sudan adjusting to postGaddafi era Uganda Signals 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