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Gilbert and Sullivan - Wikipedia Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900 ...

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Gilbert and Sullivan - Wikipedia Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900 ...

Gilbert and Sullivan - Wikipedia Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorianera theatrical partnership of the librettist W Gilbert Sullivan The Pirates Of Penzance S Gilbert 1836–1911 and the composer Arthur Sullivan 1842–1900 and to the works they jointly created The two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896 of which H M S Pinafore The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado are among the best known 1 Gilbert who wrote the words created fanciful topsyturvy worlds for these operas where each absurdity is taken to its logical conclusionfairies rub elbows with British lords flirting is a capital offence gondoliers ascend to the monarchy and pirates emerge as noblemen who have gone astray 2 Sullivan six years Gilberts junior composed the music contributing memorable melodies3 that could convey both humour and pathos 4 Their operas have enjoyed broad and enduring international success and are still performed frequently throughout the Englishspeaking world 56 Gilbert and Sullivan introduced innovations in content and form that directly influenced the development of musical theatre through the 20th century 7 The operas have also influenced political discourse literature film and television and have been widely parodied and pastiched by humorists Producer Richard DOyly Carte brought Gilbert and Sullivan together and nurtured their collaboration 8 He built the Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works which came to be known as the Savoy Operas and founded the DOyly Carte Opera Company which performed and promoted Gilbert and Sullivans works for over a century Contents 1 Beginnings 1 1 Gilbert before Sullivan 1 2 Sullivan before Gilbert 2 Operas 2 1 First collaborations 2 1 1 Thespis 2 1 2 Trial by Jury 2 2 Early successes 2 2 1 The Sorcerer 2 2 2 H M S Pinafore 2 2 3 The Pirates of Penzance 2 3 Savoy Theatre opens 2 3 1 Patience 2 3 2 Iolanthe 2 3 3 Princess Ida 2 4 Dodging the magic lozenge 2 4 1 The Mikado 2 4 2 Ruddigore 2 4 3 The Yeomen of the Guard 2 4 4 The Gondoliers 2 5 Carpet quarrel 2 6 Last works 3 Legacy and assessment 3 1 Cultural influence 4 Collaborations 4 1 Major works and original London runs 4 2 Parlour ballads 4 3 Overtures 5 Alternative versions 5 1 Translations 5 2 Ballets 5 3 Adaptations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Beginningsedit Gilbert before Sullivanedit One of Gilberts illustrations for his Bab Ballad Gentle Alice Brown Main article W S Gilbert Gilbert was born in London on 18 November 1836 His father William was a naval surgeon who later wrote novels and short stories some of which included illustrations by his son 9 In 1861 to supplement his income the younger Gilbert began writing illustrated stories poems and articles of his own many of which would later be mined as inspiration for his plays and operas particularly Gilberts series of illustrated poems the Bab Ballads 10 In the Bab Ballads and his early plays Gilbert developed a unique topsyturvy style in which humour was derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences however absurd Director and playwright Mike Leigh described the Gilbertian style as follows With great fluidity and freedom Gilbert continually challenges our natural expectations First within the framework of the story he makes bizarre things happen and turns the world on its head Thus the Learned Judge marries the Plaintiff the soldiers metamorphose into aesthetes and so on and nearly every opera is resolved by a deft moving of the goalposts His genius is to fuse opposites with an imperceptible sleight of hand to blend the surreal with the real and the caricature with the natural In other words to tell a perfectly outrageous story in a completely deadpan way 2 Gilbert developed his innovative theories on the art of stage direction following theatrical reformer Tom Robertson 9 At the time Gilbert began writing theatre in Britain was in disrepute 11 Gilbert helped to reform and elevate the respectability of the theatre especially beginning with his six short familyfriendly comic operas or entertainments for Thomas German Reed 12 Ages Ago during the rehearsals for which Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to Sullivan At a rehearsal for one of these entertainments Ages Ago 1869 the composer Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to his friend the young composer Arthur Sullivan 1314 Two years later Gilbert and Sullivan would write their first work together Those two intervening years continued to shape Gilberts theatrical style He continued to write humorous verse stories and plays including the comic operas Our Island Home 1870 and A Sensation Novel 1871 and the blank verse comedies The Princess 1870 The Palace of Truth 1870 and Pygmalion and Galatea 1871 Sullivan before Gilbertedit Main article Arthur Sullivan Sullivan was born in London on 13 May 1842 His father was a military bandmaster and by the time Arthur had reached the age of eight he was proficient with all the instruments in the band In school he began to compose anthems and songs In 1856 he received the first Mendelssohn Scholarship and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and then at Leipzig where he also took up conducting His graduation piece completed in 1861 was a suite of incidental music to Shakespeares The Tempest Revised and expanded it was performed at the Crystal Palace in 1862 and was an immediate sensation He began building a reputation as Englands most promising young composer composing a symphony a concerto and several overtures among them the Overture di Ballo in 1870 15 The Crystal Palace where several early Sullivan works premiered His early major works for the voice included The Masque at Kenilworth 1864 an oratorio The Prodigal Son 1869 and a dramatic cantata On Shore and Sea 1871 He composed a ballet LÎle Enchantée 1864 and incidental music for a number of Shakespeare plays Other early pieces that were praised were his Symphony in E Concerto for Cello and Orchestra and Overture in C In Memoriam all three of which premiered in 1866 16 These commissions however were not sufficient to keep Sullivan afloat He worked as a church organist and composed numerous hymns popular songs and parlour ballads 17 Sullivans first foray into comic opera was Cox and Box 1866 written with librettist F C Burnand for an informal gathering of friends Public performance followed with W S Gilbert then writing dramatic criticism for the magazine Fun saying that Sullivans score is in many places of too high a class for the grotesquely absurd plot to which it is wedded 18 Nonetheless it proved highly successful and is still regularly performed today Sullivan and Burnands second opera The Contrabandista 1867 was not as successful First collaborationsedit Thespisedit Main article Thespis opera A contemporary illustration of Thespis from The Illustrated London News of 6 January 1872 In 1871 producer John Hollingshead brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to produce a Christmas entertainment Thespis at his Gaiety Theatre a large West End house The piece was an extravaganza in which the classical Greek gods grown elderly are temporarily replaced by a troupe of 19thcentury actors and actresses one of whom is the eponymous Thespis the Greek father of the drama Its mixture of political satire and grand opera parody mimicked Offenbachs Orpheus in the Underworld and La belle Hélène which in translation then dominated the English musical stage 1920 Thespis opened on Boxing Day and ran for 63 performances It outran five of its nine competitors for the 1871 holiday season and its run was extended beyond the length of a normal run at the Gaiety21 but no one at the time anticipated that this was the beginning of a great collaboration Unlike the later Gilbert and Sullivan works it was hastily prepared and its nature was more risqué like Gilberts earlier burlesques with a broader style of comedy that allowed for improvisation by the actors Two of the male characters were played by women whose shapely legs were put on display in a fashion that Gilbert later condemned 22 The musical score to Thespis was never published and is now lost except for one song that was published separately a chorus that was reused in The Pirates of Penzance and the Act II ballet music 19 Over the next three years Gilbert and Sullivan did not have occasion to work together again but each man became more eminent in his field Gilbert worked with Frederic Clay on Happy Arcadia 1872 and with Alfred Cellier on Topsyturveydom 1874 and wrote The Wicked World 1873 Sweethearts 1874 and several other libretti farces extravaganzas fairy comedies dramas and adaptations Sullivan completed his Festival Te Deum 1872 another oratorio The Light of the World 1873 his only song cycle The Window or The Song of the Wrens 1871 incidental music to The Merry Wives of Windsor 1874 and more songs parlour ballads and hymns including Onward Christian Soldiers 1872 At the same time the audience for theatre was growing because of the rapidly expanding British population improvement in education and the standard of living especially of the middle class improving public transportation and installation of street lighting which made travel home from the theatre safer The number of pianos manufactured in England doubled between 1870 and 1890 as more people began to play parlour music at home and more theatres and concert halls opened 2324 Trial by Juryedit Main article Trial by Jury In 1874 Gilbert wrote a short libretto on commission from producerconductor Carl Rosa whose wife would have played the leading role but her death in childbirth cancelled the project Not long afterwards Richard DOyly Carte was managing the Royalty Theatre and needed a short opera to be played as an afterpiece to Offenbachs La Périchole Carte knew about Gilberts libretto for Rosa and suggested that Sullivan write a score for it Gilbert read the piece to Sullivan in February 1875 and the composer was delighted with it Trial by Jury was composed and staged in a matter of weeks 25 D H Fristons engraving of the original production of Trial by Jury The piece is one of Gilberts humorous spoofs of the law and the legal profession based on his short experience as a barrister It concerns a breach of promise of marriage suit The defendant argues that damages should be slight since he is such a very bad lot while the plaintiff argues that she loves the defendant fervently and seeks substantial damages After much argument the judge resolves the case by marrying the lovely plaintiff himself With Sullivans brother Fred as the Learned Judge the opera was a runaway hit outlasting the run of La Périchole Provincial tours and productions at other theatres quickly followed 26 Fred Sullivan was the prototype for the patter comic baritone roles in the later operas F C Burnand wrote that he was one of the most naturally comic little men I ever came across He too was a firstrate practical musician As he was the most absurd person so was he the very kindliest 27 Freds creation would serve as a model for the rest of the collaborators works and each of them has a crucial comic little man role as Burnand had put it The patter baritone or principal comedian as these roles later were called would often assume the leading role in Gilbert and Sullivans comic operas and was usually allotted the speedy patter songs After the success of Trial by Jury Gilbert and Sullivan were suddenly in demand to write more operas together Over the next two years Richard DOyly Carte and Carl Rosa were two of several theatrical managers who negotiated with the team but were unable to come to terms Carte proposed a revival of Thespis for the 1875 Christmas season which Gilbert and Sullivan would have revised but he was unable to obtain financing for the project In early 1876 Carte requested that Gilbert and Sullivan create another oneact opera on the theme of burglars but this was never completed 28 Early successesedit The Sorcereredit Main article The Sorcerer Cartes real ambition was to develop an English form of light opera that would displace the bawdy burlesques and badly translated French operettas then dominating the London stage He assembled a syndicate and formed the Comedy Opera Company with Gilbert and Sullivan commissioned to write a comic opera that would serve as the centrepiece for an evenings entertainment An early poster showing scenes from The Sorcerer Pinafore and Trial by Jury Gilbert found a subject in one of his own short stories The Elixir of Love which concerned the complications arising when a love potion is distributed to all the residents of a small village The leading character was a Cockney businessman who happened to be a sorcerer a purveyor of blessings not much called for and curses very popular Gilbert and Sullivan were tireless taskmasters seeing to it that The Sorcerer opened as a fully polished production in marked contrast to the underrehearsed Thespis 29 While The Sorcerer won critical acclaim it did not duplicate the success of Trial by Jury Nevertheless Carte and his syndicate were sufficiently encouraged to commission another fulllength opera from the team H M S Pinaforeedit Main article H M S Pinafore Gilbert and Sullivan scored their first international hit with H M S Pinafore 1878 satirising the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority and poking goodnatured fun at the Royal Navy and the English obsession with social status building on a theme introduced in The Sorcerer love between members of different social classes As with many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas a surprise twist changes everything dramatically near the end of the story Gilbert oversaw the designs of sets and costumes and he directed the performers on stage 30 He sought realism in acting shunned selfconscious interaction with the audience and insisted on a standard of characterisation where the characters were never aware of their own absurdity 31 Gilbert insisted that his actors know their words perfectly and obey his stage directions which was something new to many actors of the day 31 Sullivan personally oversaw the musical preparation The result was a new crispness and polish in the English musical theatre 3233 As Jessie Bond wrote later Our stage discipline was strict and unbending Gilberts word was law he thoroughly worked out in his own mind every bit of action byplay and grouping and allowed no deviation from his plan He made drawings and took measurements with the minutest care He had unlimited fertility of invention in comic business and would allow no gag no clowning no departure from his own definite conception Sullivans musical conception was equally clearcut and decided Every part must be made subservient to the whole and his sarcasms overwhelmed the transgressor with scorn And now might I trouble you to try over my music he would say to a singer too anxious to display his or her top notes But there was nothing to hurt or offend us in this unswerving discipline we took their goodhumoured raillery as our due when we failed in our rendering or overstepped the bounds and the patience and enthusiasm of that artistic pair so infected all of us that we worked willingly for hours and hours at rehearsals trying with all our might to realize the conceptions of those two brilliant minds 34 H M S Pinafore ran in London for 571 performances35 the second longest run of any musical theatre piece in history up to that time after the operetta Les cloches de Corneville 36 Hundreds of unauthorised or pirated productions of Pinafore appeared in America 37 During the run of Pinafore Richard DOyly Carte split up with his former investors The disgruntled former partners who had invested in the production with no return staged a public fracas sending a group of thugs to seize the scenery during a performance Stagehands successfully managed to ward off their backstage attackers 38 This event cleared the way for Carte Gilbert and Sullivan to form the DOyly Carte Opera Company which then produced all of their succeeding operas The libretto of H M S Pinafore relied on stock character types many of which were familiar from European opera and some of which grew out of Gilberts earlier association with the German Reeds the heroic protagonist tenor and his loveinterest soprano the older woman with a secret or a sharp tongue contralto the baffled lyric baritonethe girls father and a classic villain bassbaritone Gilbert and Sullivan added the element of the comic pattersinging character With the success of H M S Pinafore the DOyly Carte repertory and production system was cemented and each opera would make use of these stock character types Before The Sorcerer Gilbert had constructed his plays around the established stars of whatever theatre he happened to be writing for as had been the case with Thespis and Trial by Jury Building on the team he had assembled for The Sorcerer Gilbert no longer hired stars he created them He and Sullivan selected the performers writing their operas for ensemble casts rather than individual stars The Pirate King The repertory system ensured that the comic patter character who performed the role of the sorcerer John Wellington Wells would become the ruler of the Queens navy as Sir Joseph Porter in H M S Pinafore then join the army as MajorGeneral Stanley in The Pirates of Penzance and so on Similarly Mrs Partlet in The Sorcerer transformed into Little Buttercup in Pinafore then into Ruth the piratical maidofallwork in Pirates Relatively unknown performers whom Gilbert and Sullivan engaged early in the collaboration would stay with the company for many years becoming stars of the Victorian stage These included George Grossmith the principal comic Rutland Barrington the lyric baritone Richard Temple the bassbaritone and Jessie Bond the mezzosoprano soubrette The Pirates of Penzanceedit Main article The Pirates of Penzance The Pirates of Penzance New Years Eve 1879 also poked fun at grand opera conventions sense of duty family obligation the respectability of civilisation and the peerage and the relevance of a liberal education The story also revisits Pinafores theme of unqualified people in positions of authority in the person of the modern MajorGeneral who has uptodate knowledge about everything except the military The MajorGeneral and his many daughters escape from the tenderhearted Pirates of Penzance who are all orphans on the false plea that he is an orphan himself The pirates learn of the deception and recapture the MajorGeneral but when it is revealed that the pirates are all peers the MajorGeneral bids them resume your ranks and legislative duties and take my daughters all of whom are beauties The piece premiered in New York rather than London in an unsuccessful attempt to secure the American copyright39 and was another big success with both critics and audiences 40 Gilbert Sullivan and Carte tried for many years to control the American performance copyrights over their operas without success 41 Nevertheless Pirates was a hit both in New York again spawning numerous imitators and then in London and it became one of the most frequently performed translated and parodied Gilbert and Sullivan works also enjoying successful 1981 Broadway42 and 1982 West End revivals by Joseph Papp that continue to influence productions of the opera 43 In 1880 Sullivans cantata The Martyr of Antioch premiered at the Leeds Triennial Music Festival with a libretto modified by Gilbert from an 1822 epic poem by Henry Hart Milman concerning the 3rd century martyrdom of St Margaret of Antioch Sullivan became the conductor of the Leeds festival beginning in 1880 and conducted the performance The Carl Rosa Opera Company staged the cantata as an opera in 1898 44 Savoy Theatre opensedit Patienceedit Main article Patience opera George Grossmith as Bunthorne in Patience 1881 Patience 1881 satirised the aesthetic movement in general and its colourful poets in particular combining aspects of Algernon Charles Swinburne Dante Gabriel Rossetti Oscar Wilde James McNeill Whistler and others in the rival poets Bunthorne and Grosvenor Grossmith who created the role of Bunthorne based his makeup wig and costume on Swinburne and especially Whistler as seen in the adjacent photo 45 The work also lampoons male vanity and chauvinism in the military The story concerns two rival aesthetic poets who attract the attention of the young ladies of the village who had been engaged to the members of a cavalry regiment But both poets are in love with Patience the village milkmaid who detests one of them and feels that it is her duty to avoid the other despite her love for him Richard DOyly Carte was the booking manager for Oscar Wilde a then lesserknown proponent of aestheticism and dispatched Wilde on an American lecture tour in conjunction with the operas U S run so that American audiences might better understand what the satire was all about During the run of Patience Carte built the large modern Savoy Theatre which became the partnerships permanent home It was the first theatre indeed the worlds first public building to be lit entirely by electric lighting 46Patience moved into the Savoy after six months at the Opera Comique and ran for a total of 578 performances surpassing the run of H M S Pinafore and becoming the second longestrunning work of musical theatre up to that time in history 47 Iolantheedit Main article Iolanthe Iolanthe 1882 was the first of the operas to open at the Savoy The fully electric Savoy made possible numerous special effects such as sparkling magic wands for the female chorus of fairies The opera poked fun at English law and the House of Lords and made much of the war between the sexes The critics felt that Sullivans work in Iolanthe had taken a step forward The Daily Telegraph wrote The composer has risen to his opportunity and we are disposed to account Iolanthe his best effort in all the Gilbertian series 48 Similarly the Theatre asserted that the music of Iolanthe is Dr Sullivans chef doeuvre The quality throughout is more even and maintained at a higher standard than in any of his earlier works 49 Barnett as The Fairy Queen Iolanthe is one of a number of Gilberts works including The Wicked World 1873 Broken Hearts 1875 Princess Ida 1884 and Fallen Fairies 1909 where the introduction of men and mortal love into a tranquil world of women wreaks havoc with the status quo 50 Gilbert had created several fairy comedies at the Haymarket Theatre in the early 1870s These plays influenced by the fairy work of James Planché are founded upon the idea of selfrevelation by characters under the influence of some magic or some supernatural interference 51 In 1882 Gilbert had a telephone installed in his home and at the prompt desk at the Savoy Theatre so that he could monitor performances and rehearsals from his home study Gilbert had referred to the new technology in Pinafore in 1878 only two years after the device was invented and before London even had telephone service Sullivan had one installed as well and on 13 May 1883 at a party to celebrate the composers 41st birthday the guests including the Prince of Wales later Edward VII heard a direct relay of parts of Iolanthe from the Savoy This was probably the first live broadcast of an opera 52 During the run of Iolanthe in 1883 Sullivan was knighted by Queen Victoria Although it was the operas with Gilbert that had earned him the broadest fame the honour was conferred for his services to serious music The musical establishment and many critics believed that this should put an end to his career as a composer of comic operathat a musical knight should not stoop below oratorio or grand opera 53 Sullivan despite the financial security of writing for the Savoy increasingly viewed his work with Gilbert as unimportant beneath his skills and repetitious Furthermore he was unhappy that he had to simplify his music to ensure that Gilberts words could be heard But paradoxically in February 1883 just after Iolanthe opened Sullivan had signed a fiveyear agreement with Gilbert and Carte requiring him to produce a new comic opera on six months notice 8 Princess Idaedit Princess Ida Act II Finale Hildebrand and soldiers rush through the gate Main article Princess Ida Princess Ida 1884 spoofed womens education and male chauvinism and continued the theme from Iolanthe of the war between the sexes The opera is based on Tennysons poem The Princess A Medley Gilbert had written a blank verse farce based on the same material in 1870 called The Princess and he reused a good deal of the dialogue from his earlier play in the libretto of Princess Ida Ida is the only Gilbert and Sullivan work with dialogue entirely in blank verse and is also the only one of their works in three acts Lillian Russell had been engaged to create the title role but Gilbert did not believe that she was dedicated enough and when she missed a rehearsal he dismissed her 54 Princess Ida was the first of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas that by the partnerships previous standards was not a success A particularly hot summer in London did not help ticket sales The piece ran for a comparatively short 246 performances and was not revived in London until 1919 Sullivan had been satisfied with the libretto but two months after Ida opened Sullivan told Carte that it is impossible for me to do another piece of the character of those already written by Gilbert and myself 8 As Princess Ida showed signs of flagging Carte realised that for the first time in the partnerships history no new opera would be ready when the old one closed On 22 March 1884 he gave Gilbert and Sullivan contractual notice that a new opera would be required in six months time 55 In the meantime when Ida closed Carte produced a revival of The Sorcerer Dodging the magic lozengeedit The Mikadoedit Main article The Mikado Lithograph of the Three Little Maids from The Mikado The most successful of the Savoy Operas was The Mikado 1885 which made fun of English bureaucracy thinly disguised by a Japanese setting Gilbert initially proposed a story for a new opera about a magic lozenge that would change the characters56 which Sullivan found artificial and lacking in human interest and probability as well as being too similar to their earlier opera The Sorcerer As dramatised in the film TopsyTurvy57 the author and composer were at an impasse until 8 May 1884 when Gilbert dropped the lozenge idea and agreed to provide a libretto without any supernatural elements The story focuses on a cheap tailor KoKo who is promoted to the position of Lord High Executioner of the town of Titipu KoKo loves his ward YumYum but she loves a musician who is really the son of the emperor of Japan the Mikado and who is in disguise to escape the attentions of the elderly and amorous Katisha The Mikado has decreed that executions must resume without delay in Titipu When news arrives that the Mikado will be visiting the town KoKo assumes that he is coming to ascertain whether KoKo has carried out the executions Too timid to execute anyone KoKo cooks up a conspiracy to misdirect the Mikado which goes awry Eventually KoKo must persuade Katisha to marry him in order to save his own life and the lives of the other conspirators With the opening of trade between England and Japan Japanese imports art and styles became fashionable in London making the time ripe for an opera set in Japan Gilbert said I cannot give you a good reason for our piece being laid in Japan It afforded scope for picturesque treatment scenery and costume and I think that the idea of a chief magistrate who is judge and actual executioner in one and yet would not hurt a worm may perhaps please the public 58 Setting the opera in Japan an exotic locale far away from Britain allowed Gilbert and Sullivan to satirise British politics and institutions more freely by clothing them in superficial Japanese trappings Gilbert wrote The Mikado of the opera was an imaginary monarch of a remote period and cannot by any exercise of ingenuity be taken to be a slap on an existing institution 59G K Chesterton compared it to Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels Gilbert pursued and persecuted the evils of modern England till they had literally not a leg to stand on exactly as Swift did I doubt if there is a single joke in the whole play that fits the Japanese But all the jokes in the play fit the English About England Poohbah is something more than a satire he is the truth 60 Several of the later operas are similarly set in foreign or fictional locales including The Gondoliers Utopia Limited and The Grand Duke Favorite airs from The Mikado A 1914 Edison Records recording of selections from The Mikado Includes parts of the overture A wandring minstrel Three little maids Titwillow and the Act II finale Problems playing this file See media help The Mikado became the partnerships longestrunning hit enjoying 672 performances at the Savoy Theatre which was the second longest run for any work of musical theatre surpassing the 571 performances of Pinafore and 576 of Patience and one of the longest runs of any theatre piece up to that time 61The Mikado remains the most frequently performed Savoy Opera 62 It has been translated into numerous languages and is one of the most frequently played musical theatre pieces in history 63 Ruddigoreedit Main article Ruddigore Ruddigore 1887 a topsyturvy take on Victorian melodrama was less successful than most of the earlier collaborations with a run of 288 performances The original title Ruddygore together with some of the plot devices including the revivification of ghosts drew negative comments from critics 64 Gilbert and Sullivan respelled the title and made a number of changes and cuts 65 Nevertheless the piece was profitable66 and the reviews were not all bad For instance the Illustrated London News praised the work and both Gilbert and especially Sullivan Sir Arthur Sullivan has eminently succeeded alike in the expression of refined sentiment and comic humour In the former respect the charm of graceful melody prevails while in the latter the music of the most grotesque situations is redolent of fun 67 Further changes were made including a new overture when Rupert DOyly Carte revived Ruddigore after the First World War and the piece was regularly performed by the DOyly Carte Opera Company thereafter 68 Some of the plot elements of Ruddigore were introduced by Gilbert in his earlier oneact opera Ages Ago 1869 including the tale of the wicked ancestor and the device of the ghostly ancestors stepping out of their portraits citation needed When Ruddigore closed no new opera was ready Gilbert again proposed a version of the lozenge plot for their next opera and Sullivan reiterated his desire to leave the partnership citation needed While the two men worked out their artistic differences Carte produced revivals of such old favourites as H M S Pinafore The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado The Yeomen of the Guardedit Main article The Yeomen of the Guard W H Denny as Wilfred and Jessie Bond as Phoebe in Yeomen The Yeomen of the Guard 1888 their only joint work with a serious ending concerns a pair of strolling playersa jester and a singing girlwho are caught up in a risky intrigue at the Tower of London during the 16th century The dialogue though in prose is quasiearly modern English in style and there is no satire of British institutions For some of the plot elements Gilbert had reached back to his 1875 tragedy Broken Hearts The Times praised the libretto It should be acknowledged that Mr Gilbert has earnestly endeavoured to leave familiar grooves and rise to higher things 69 Although not a grand opera the new libretto provided Sullivan with the opportunity to write his most ambitious score to date The critics who had recently lauded the composer for his successful oratorio The Golden Legend considered the score to Yeomen to be Sullivans finest including its overture which was written in sonata form rather than as a sequential potpourri of tunes from the opera as in most of his other overtures The Daily Telegraph wrote The accompaniments are delightful to hear and especially does the treatment of the woodwind compel admiring attention Schubert himself could hardly have handled those instruments more deftly written for them more lovingly We place the songs and choruses in The Yeomen of the Guard before all his previous efforts of this particular kind Thus the music follows the book to a higher plane and we have a genuine English opera 70 Yeomen was a hit running for over a year with strong New York and touring productions During the run on 12 March 1889 Sullivan wrote to Gilbert I have lost the liking for writing comic opera and entertain very grave doubts as to my power of doing it You say that in a serious opera you must more or less sacrifice yourself I say that this is just what I have been doing in all our joint pieces and what is more must continue to do in comic opera to make it successful 71 Sullivan insisted that the next opera must be a grand opera Gilbert did not feel that he could write a grand opera libretto but he offered a compromise that Sullivan eventually accepted The two would write a light opera for the Savoy and at the same time Sullivan a grand opera Ivanhoe for a new theatre that Carte was constructing to present British grand opera After a brief impasse over the choice of subject Sullivan accepted an idea connected with Venice and Venetian life as this seemed to me to hold out great chances of bright colour and taking music 72 The Gondoliersedit Main article The Gondoliers Rutland Barrington and Courtice Pounds as Giuseppe and Marco in The Gondoliers The Gondoliers 1889 takes place partly in Venice and partly in a kingdom ruled by a pair of gondoliers who attempt to remodel the monarchy in a spirit of republican equality 73 Gilbert recapitulates a number of his earlier themes including the satire of class distinctions figuring in many of his earlier librettos The libretto also reflects Gilberts fascination with the Stock Company Act highlighting the absurd convergence of natural persons and legal entities which plays an even larger part in the next opera Utopia Limited Press accounts were almost entirely favourable The Illustrated London News reported Gilbert has returned to the Gilbert of the past and everyone is delighted He is himself again The Gilbert of the Bab Ballads the Gilbert of whimsical conceit inoffensive cynicism subtle satire and playful paradox the Gilbert who invented a school of his own who in it was schoolmaster and pupil who has never taught anybody but himself and is never likely to have any imitatorthis is the Gilbert the public want to see and this is the Gilbert who on Saturday night was cheered till the audience was weary of cheering any more 74 Sullivans old collaborator on Cox and Box later the editor of Punch magazine F C Burnand wrote to the composer Magnificento I envy you and W S G being able to place a piece like this on the stage in so complete a fashion 74 The opera enjoyed a run longer than any of their other joint works except for H M S Pinafore Patience and The Mikado There was a command performance of The Gondoliers for Queen Victoria and the royal family at Windsor Castle in 1891 the first Gilbert and Sullivan opera to be so honoured The Gondoliers was Gilbert and Sullivans last great success Carpet quarreledit Gilbert and Sullivan sometimes had a strained working relationship partly caused by the fact that each man saw himself as allowing his work to be subjugated to the others and partly caused by the opposing personalities of the twoGilbert was often confrontational and notoriously thinskinned though prone to acts of extraordinary kindness while Sullivan eschewed conflict 75 In addition Gilbert imbued his libretti with topsyturvy situations in which the social order was turned upside down After a time these subjects were often at odds with Sullivans desire for realism and emotional content 76 Also Gilberts political satire often poked fun at the wealthy and powerful whom Sullivan sought out for friendship and patronage 77 Original facade of the Savoy Theatre c 1881 Gilbert and Sullivan disagreed several times over the choice of a subject After both Princess Ida and Ruddigore which were less successful than the seven other operas from H M S Pinafore to The Gondoliers Sullivan asked to leave the partnership saying that he found Gilberts plots repetitive and that the operas were not artistically satisfying to him While the two artists worked out their differences Carte kept the Savoy open with revivals of their earlier works On each occasion after a few months pause Gilbert responded with a libretto that met Sullivans objections and the partnership was able to continue successfully 8 In April 1890 however during the run of The Gondoliers Gilbert challenged Carte over the expenses of the production Among other items to which Gilbert objected Carte had charged the cost of a new carpet for the Savoy Theatre lobby to the partnership 78 Gilbert believed that this was a maintenance expense that should be charged to Carte alone Gilbert confronted Carte who refused to reconsider the accounts Gilbert stormed out and wrote to Sullivan that I left him with the remark that it was a mistake to kick down the ladder by which he had risen 8 Helen Carte wrote that Gilbert had addressed Carte in a way that I should not have thought you would have used to an offending menial 79 As scholar Andrew Crowther has explained After all the carpet was only one of a number of disputed items and the real issue lay not in the mere money value of these things but in whether Carte could be trusted with the financial affairs of Gilbert and Sullivan Gilbert contended that Carte had at best made a series of serious blunders in the accounts and at worst deliberately attempted to swindle the others It is not easy to settle the rights and wrongs of the issue at this distance but it does seem fairly clear that there was something very wrong with the accounts at this time Gilbert wrote to Sullivan on 28 May 1891 a year after the end of the Quarrel that Carte had admitted an unintentional overcharge of nearly £1000 in the electric lighting accounts alone 8 In the midst of the quarrel Gilbert dedicated a collection of Savoy opera lyrics Songs of a Savoyard to the composer Things soon degraded a legal hearing was held and Sullivan supported Carte by making an affidavit erroneously stating that there were minor legal expenses outstanding from a battle Gilbert had with Lillian Russell On 5 May 1890 Gilbert had written to Sullivan The time for putting an end to our collaboration has at last arrived 8 Gilbert later asked Sullivan to say he had been mistaken in his affidavit but Sullivan refused Gilbert felt it was a moral issue and could not look past it Sullivan felt that Gilbert was questioning his good faith and in any event Sullivan had other reasons to stay in Cartes good graces Carte was building a new theatre the Royal English Opera House to produce Sullivans only grand opera Ivanhoe 8 Gilbert brought suit and after The Gondoliers closed in 1891 he withdrew the performance rights to his libretti vowing to write no more operas for the Savoy 80 Gilbert next wrote The Mountebanks with Alfred Cellier and the flop Haste to the Wedding with George Grossmith81 and Sullivan wrote Haddon Hall with Sydney Grundy Gilbert eventually won the lawsuit but his actions and statements had been hurtful to his partners Nevertheless the partnership had been so profitable that after the financial failure of the Royal English Opera House Carte and his wife sought to reunite the author and composer 80 In late 1891 after many failed attempts at reconciliation Gilbert and Sullivans music publisher Tom Chappell stepped in to mediate between two of his most profitable artists and within two weeks he had succeeded eventually leading to two further collaborations between Gilbert and Sullivan 82 Last worksedit The drawing room scene from Act II of Utopia Limited Utopia Limited 1893 their penultimate opera was a very modest success and their last The Grand Duke 1896 was an outright failure 83 Neither work entered the canon of regularly performed Gilbert and Sullivan works until the DOyly Carte Opera Company made the first complete professional recordings of the two operas in the 1970s Gilbert had also offered Sullivan another libretto His Excellency 1894 but Gilberts insistence on casting Nancy McIntosh his protege from Utopia led to Sullivans refusal and His Excellency was instead composed by F Osmond Carr 84 Meanwhile the Savoy Theatre continued to revive the Gilbert and Sullivan operas in between new pieces and DOyly Carte touring companies also played them in repertory The Entracte expresses its pleasure that Gilbert and Sullivan are reunited After The Grand Duke the partners saw no reason to work together again A last unpleasant misunderstanding occurred in 1898 At the premiere of Sullivan’s opera The Beauty Stone on 28 May Gilbert arrived at the Savoy Theatre with friends assuming that Sullivan had reserved some seats for him Instead he was informed that Sullivan objected to his presence The composer later denied that this was true 78 The last time they met was at the Savoy Theatre on 17 November 1898 at the celebration of the 21st anniversary of the first performance of The Sorcerer They did not speak to each other 85 Sullivan by this time in exceedingly poor health died in 1900 although to the end he continued to write new comic operas for the Savoy with other librettists most successfully with Basil Hood in The Rose of Persia 1899 Gilbert also wrote several works some with other collaborators in the 1890s By the time of Sullivans death in 1900 Gilbert wrote that any memory of their rift had been completely bridged over and the most cordial relations existed between us 7886 He stated that Sullivan because he was a composer of the rarest genius was as modest and as unassuming as a neophyte should be but seldom is I remember all that he has done for me in allowing his genius to shed some of its lustre upon my humble name 86 Richard DOyly Carte died in 1901 and his widow Helen continued to direct the activities of the DOyly Carte Opera Company at the Savoy and on tour Gilbert went into semiretirement although he continued to direct revivals of the Savoy Operas and wrote new plays occasionally Between 1906 and 1909 he assisted Mrs Carte in staging two repertory seasons at the Savoy Theatre These were very popular and revived interest in the works 87 Gilbert was knighted during the first repertory season 88 After Sullivans death Gilbert wrote only one more comic opera Fallen Fairies 1909 music by Edward German which was not a success 7889 Legacy and assessmentedit Gilbert died in 1911 and Richards son Rupert DOyly Carte took over the opera company upon his stepmothers death in 1913 His daughter Bridget inherited the company upon his death in 1948 The DOyly Carte Opera Company toured nearly yearround except for its many London seasons and foreign tours performing exclusively the Gilbert and Sullivan operas until it closed in 1982 During the 20th century the company gave well over 35000 performances 9091 The Savoy operas from the beginning were produced extensively in North America and Australasia and soon afterwards in Germany Russia and elsewhere in Europe and around the world 92 1921 cartoon of Gilbert and Sullivan audiences In 1922 Sir Henry Wood explained the enduring success of the collaboration as follows Sullivan has never had an equal for brightness and drollery for humour without coarseness and without vulgarity and for charm and grace His orchestration is delightful he wrote with full understanding of every orchestral voice Above all his music is perfectly appropriate to the words of which it is the setting He found the right the only cadences to fit Gilberts happy and original rhythms and to match Gilberts fun or to throw Gilberts frequent irony pointed although not savage into relief Sullivans music is much more than the accompaniment of Gilberts libretti just as Gilberts libretti are far more than words to Sullivans music We have two masters who are playing a concerto Neither is subordinate to the other each gives what is original but the two while neither predominates are in perfect correspondence This rare harmony of words and music is what makes these operas entirely unique They are the work not of a musician and his librettist nor of a poet and one who sets his words to music but of two geniuses 93 G K Chesterton similarly praised the combination of the two artists anticipating the operas success into the remote future He wrote that Gilberts satire was too intelligent to be intelligible by itself and that perhaps only Sullivan could have given wings to his words in exactly the right degree frivolous and exactly the right degree fastidious The words precise degree of levity and distance from reality seemed to be expressed in the very notes of the music almost in the note of the laughter that followed it 94 In 1957 a review in The Times gave this rationale for the continued vitality of the Savoy operas They were never really contemporary in their idiom Gilbert and Sullivans world from the first moment was obviously not the audiences world it was an artificial world with a neatly controlled and shapely precision which has not gone out of fashion – because it was never in fashion in the sense of using the fleeting conventions and ways of thought of contemporary human society For this each partner has his share of credit The neat articulation of incredibilities in Gilberts plots is perfectly matched by his language His dialogue with its primly mocking formality satisfies both the ear and the intelligence His verses show an unequalled and very delicate gift for creating a comic effect by the contrast between poetic form and prosaic thought and wording How deliciously his lines prick the bubble of sentiment Of equal importance Gilberts lyrics almost invariably take on extra point and sparkle when set to Sullivans music Sullivans tunes in these operas also exist in a makebelieve world of their own He is a delicate wit whose airs have a precision a neatness a grace and a flowing melody The two men together remain endlessly and incomparably delightful Light and even trifling though the operas may seem upon grave consideration they yet have the shapeliness and elegance that can make a trifle into a work of art 95 Because of the unusual success of the operas the DOyly Carte Opera Company were able from the start to license the works to other professional companies such as the J C Williamson Gilbert and Sullivan Opera Company and to amateur troupes For almost a century until the British copyrights expired at the end of 1961 and even afterwards the DOyly Carte Opera Company influenced productions of the operas worldwide creating a performing tradition for most of the operas that is still referred to today by many directors both amateur and professional 96 Indeed Gilbert Sullivan and Carte had an important influence on amateur theatre Cellier and Bridgeman wrote in 1914 that prior to the creation of the Savoy operas amateur actors were treated with contempt by professionals After the formation of amateur Gilbert and Sullivan companies in the 1880s licensed to perform the operas professionals recognised that the amateur performing groups support the culture of music and the drama They are now accepted as useful training schools for the legitimate stage and from the volunteer ranks have sprung many presentday favourites 97 Cellier and Bridgeman attributed the rise in quality and reputation of the amateur groups largely to the popularity of and infectious craze for performing the Gilbert and Sullivan operas 98 The National Operatic and Dramatic Association NODA was founded in 1899 It reported in 1914 that nearly 200 British troupes were performing Gilbert and Sullivan that year constituting most of the amateur companies in the country this figure included only the societies that were members of NODA The association further reported that almost 1000 performances of the Savoy operas had been given in Britain that year many of them to benefit charities 99 Cellier and Bridgeman noted that strong amateur groups were performing the operas in places as far away as New Zealand 100 In the U S and elsewhere where British copyrights on the operas were not enforced both professional and amateur companies performed the works throughout the 20th century – the Internet Broadway Database counts about 150 productions on Broadway alone from 1900 to 1960 The Savoy Company an amateur group formed in 1901 in Philadelphia continues to perform today 101102 In 1948 Life magazine reported that about 5000 performances of Gilbert and Sullivan operas were given annually in the US exceeding the number of performances of Shakespeare plays 103 Recordings of excerpts from the Gilbert and Sullivan operas began to be released in 1906 In 1917 the Gramophone Company also known as HMV produced the first album of a complete musical score of a Gilbert and Sullivan opera The Mikado followed by recordings of eight more of the operas 104Electrical recordings of the complete musical scores of most of the operas were then issued by the Gramophone Company and Victor Talking Machine Company beginning in the late 1920s These recordings were supervised by Rupert DOyly Carte 105 The original DOyly Carte Opera Company continued to produce wellregarded recordings until 1979 helping to keep the operas popular through the decades Many of these recordings have been reissued on CD 106 After the copyrights on the operas expired other professional companies were free to perform and record the operas Many performing companies arose to produce the works such as Gilbert and Sullivan for All in Britain and the Light Opera of Manhattan and Light Opera Works in the U S and existing companies such as English National Opera and Australian Opera added Gilbert and Sullivan to their repertories Gilbert Sullivan The Pirates Of Penzance 107 These companies also released popular audio and video recordings of the operas 108 In 1966 and again in the 1980s BBC Radio presented complete cycles of the thirteen extant Gilbert and Sullivan operas with dialogue 109 In 1980 a Broadway and West End production of Pirates produced by Joseph Papp brought new audiences to Gilbert and Sullivan and between 1988 and 2003 the revived DOyly Carte Opera Company revived the operas on tour and on the West End also recording seven of the operas 110 A set of eleven of the operas omitting the last two was produced in 1982 for television ten of which are available on VHS and DVD 111 Today many professional repertory companies112 small opera companies amateur societies churches schools and universities continue to produce the works 6113 The most popular G&S works also continue to be performed from time to time by major opera companies114115 and professional recordings of the operas and albums of songs from the operas continue to be released 116117 Since 1994 the International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival has been held every August in England with some two dozen or more performances of the operas given on the main stage and several dozen related fringe events given in smaller venues 96118 The Festival sells both professional and amateur videos of its most popular productions 119 In connection with the 2009 festival a contemporary critic wrote The appeal of G&S’s special blend of charm silliness and gentle satire seems immune to fashion 6 There continue to be hundreds of amateur companies performing the Gilbert and Sullivan works worldwide 120 Cultural influenceedit Detail from a Punch cartoon showing Sullivan and Gilbert Main article Cultural influence of Gilbert and Sullivan In the past 125 years Gilbert and Sullivan have pervasively influenced popular culture in the Englishspeaking world121 and lines and quotations from their operas have become part of the English language even if not originated by Gilbert such as short sharp shock What never Well hardly ever let the punishment fit the crime and A policemans lot is not a happy one 15122 The operas have influenced political style and discourse literature film and television have been widely parodied by humorists and have been quoted in legal rulings 123 The American and British musical owes a tremendous debt to G&S124125 who were admired and copied by early musical theatre authors and composers such as Ivan Caryll Adrian Ross Lionel Monckton P G Wodehouse126127Guy Bolton and Victor Herbert and later Jerome Kern Ira Gershwin Yip Harburg128Irving Berlin Ivor Novello Oscar Hammerstein II and Andrew Lloyd Webber 129 Gilberts lyrics served as a model for such 20thcentury Broadway lyricists as Cole Porter130Ira Gershwin131 and Lorenz Hart 7Noël Coward wrote I was born into a generation that still took light music seriously The lyrics and melodies of Gilbert and Sullivan were hummed and strummed into my consciousness at an early age My father sang them my mother played them my nurse Emma breathed them through her teeth My aunts and uncles sang them singly and in unison at the slightest provocation 132 Professor Carolyn Williams has noted however The influence of Gilbert and Sullivan – their wit and sense of irony the send ups of politics and contemporary culture – goes beyond musical theater to comedy in general Allusions to their work have made their way into our own popular culture 133 Gilbert and Sullivan expert and enthusiast Ian Bradley agrees The musical is not of course the only cultural form to show the influence of G&S Even more direct heirs are those witty and satirical songwriters found on both sides of the Atlantic in the twentieth century like Michael Flanders and Donald Swann in the United Kingdom and Tom Lehrer in the United States The influence of Gilbert is discernible in a vein of British comedy that runs through John Betjemans verse via Monty Python and Private Eye to television series like Yes Minister where the emphasis is on wit irony and poking fun at the establishment from within it in a way which manages to be both disrespectful of authority and yet cosily comfortable and urbane 96 The works of Gilbert and Sullivan are themselves frequently pastiched and parodied 134135 Well known examples of this include Tom Lehrers The Elements and Clementine136Allan Shermans Im Called Little Butterball When I Was a Lad You Need an Analyst and The Bronx BirdWatcher137138 and The Two Ronnies 1973 Christmas Special 139 Other comedians have used Gilbert and Sullivan songs as a key part of their routines including Hinge and Bracket140Anna Russell141 and the HMS Yakko episode of the animated TV series Animaniacs Songs from Gilbert and Sullivan are often pastiched in advertising and elaborate advertising parodies have been published as have the likenesses of various Gilbert and Sullivan performers throughout the decades 142 Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas are commonly referenced in literature film and television in various ways that include extensive use of Sullivans music or where action occurs during a performance of a Gilbert and Sullivan opera such as in the film The Girl Said No 143 There are also a number of Gilbert and Sullivan biographical films such as Mike Leighs TopsyTurvy 2000 and The Story of Gilbert and Sullivan 1953 as well as shows about the partnership including a 1938 Broadway show Knights of Song144 and a 1975 West End show called Tarantara Tarantara145146 It is not surprising given the focus of Gilbert on politics that politicians and political observers have often found inspiration in these works Chief Justice of the United States William Rehnquist added gold stripes to his judicial robes after seeing them used by the Lord Chancellor in a production of Iolanthe 147 Alternatively Lord Chancellor Charles Falconer is recorded as objecting so strongly to Iolanthes comic portrayal of Lord Chancellors that he supported moves to disband the office 122 British politicians beyond quoting some of the more famous lines have delivered speeches in the form of Gilbert and Sullivan pastiches These include Conservative Peter Lilleys speech mimicking the form of Ive got a little list from The Mikado listing those he was against including sponging socialists and young ladies who get pregnant just to jump the housing queue 122 Political humour based on Gilbert and Sullivans style and characters continues to be written 148 Collaborationsedit 1880 Pirates poster Major works and original London runsedit Thespis or The Gods Grown Old 1871 63 performances Trial by Jury 1875 131 performances The Sorcerer 1877 178 performances H M S Pinafore or The Lass That Loved a Sailor 1878 571 performances The Pirates of Penzance or The Slave of Duty 1879 363 performances The Martyr of Antioch cantata 1880 Gilbert modified the poem by Henry Hart Milman Patience or Bunthornes Bride 1881 578 performances Iolanthe or The Peer and the Peri 1882 398 performances Princess Ida or Castle Adamant 1884 246 performances The Mikado or The Town of Titipu 1885 672 performances Ruddigore or The Witchs Curse 1887 288 performances The Yeomen of the Guard or The Merryman and his Maid 1888 423 performances The Gondoliers or The King of Barataria 1889 554 performances Utopia Limited or The Flowers of Progress 1893 245 performances The Grand Duke or The Statutory Duel 1896 123 performances Parlour balladsedit The Distant Shore 1874 The Love that Loves Me Not 1875 Sweethearts 1875 based on Gilberts 1874 play Sweethearts Overturesedit The overtures from the Gilbert and Sullivan operas remain popular and there are many recordings of them 149 Most of them are structured as a potpourri of tunes from the operas They are generally wellorchestrated but not all of them were composed by Sullivan However even those delegated to his assistants were based on an outline he provided150 and in many cases incorporated his suggestions or corrections 151 Sullivan invariably conducted them as well as the entire operas on opening night and they were included in the published scores approved by Sullivan 151 Those Sullivan wrote himself include the overtures to Thespis Iolanthe Princess Ida The Yeomen of the Guard The Gondoliers and The Grand Duke Sullivans authorship of the overture to Utopia Limited cannot be verified with certainty as his autograph score is now lost but it is likely attributable to him as it consists of only a few bars of introduction followed by a straight copy of music heard elsewhere in the opera the Drawing Room scene Thespis is now lost but there is no doubt that Sullivan wrote its overture 152 Very early performances of The Sorcerer used a section of Sullivans incidental music to Shakespeares Henry the VIII as he did not have time to write a new overture but this was replaced in 1884 by one executed by Hamilton Clarke 153 Of those remaining the overtures to H M S Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance are by Alfred Cellier154 the overture to Patience is by Eugene dAlbert155 and those to The Mikado and Ruddigore are by Hamilton Clarke although the Ruddigore overture was later replaced by one written by Geoffrey Toye 156 Most of the overtures are in three sections a lively introduction a slow middle section and a concluding allegro in sonata form with two subjects a brief development a recapitulation and a coda However Sullivan himself did not always follow this pattern The overture to Princess Ida for instance has only an opening fast section and a concluding slow section The overture to Utopia Limited is dominated by a slow section with only a very brief original passage introducing it 151 In the 1920s the DOyly Carte Opera Company commissioned its musical director at the time Geoffrey Toye to write new overtures for Ruddigore and The Pirates of Penzance Toyes Ruddigore overture entered the general repertory and today is more often heard than the original overture by Clarke 157 Toyes Pirates overture however did not last long and is now presumed lost 158Sir Malcolm Sargent devised a new ending for the overture to The Gondoliers adding the cachucha from the second act of the opera This gave the Gondoliers overture the familiar fastslowfast pattern of most of the rest of the Savoy Opera overtures and this version has competed for popularity with Sullivans original version 151159 Alternative versionsedit Translationsedit Gilbert and Sullivan operas have been translated into many languages including Portuguese Yiddish Hebrew Swedish Dutch Danish Estonian Hungarian Russian Japanese French Italian Spanish reportedly including a version of Pinafore transformed into zarzuela style Catalan and others 160 There are many German versions of Gilbert and Sullivan operas including the popular Der Mikado There is even a German version of The Grand Duke Some German translations were made by Friedrich Zell and Richard Genée librettists of Die Fledermaus and other Viennese operettas who even translated one of Sullivans lesserknown operas The Chieftain as Der Häuptling Balletsedit Pirates of Penzance The Ballet created for the Queensland Ballet in 1991 Pineapple Poll created by John Cranko in 1951 at Sadlers Wells Theatre in repertoire at the Birmingham Royal Ballet The ballet is based on Gilberts 1870 Bab Ballad The Bumboat Womans Story as is H M S Pinafore Cranko expanded the plotline of Gilberts poem and added a happy ending The music is arranged by Sir Charles Mackerras from themes by Sullivan Adaptationsedit Frontispiece to The Pinafore Picture Book 1908 Gilbert adapted the stories of H M S Pinafore and The Mikado into childrens books called The Pinafore Picture Book and The Story of The Mikado giving in some cases backstory that is not found in the librettos 161162163 Many other childrens books have since been written retelling the stories of the operas or adapting characters or events from them 164 In the 19th century the most popular Gilbert and Sullivan songs and music were adapted as dance pieces 165 Many musical theatre and film adaptations of the operas have been produced including the following The Swing Mikado 1938 Chicago – allblack cast The Hot Mikado 1939 and Hot Mikado 1986 The Jazz Mikado 1927 Berlin Hollywood Pinafore 1945 The Cool Mikado 1962 film The Black Mikado 1975 Dick Deadeye or Duty Done 1975 animated film The Pirate Movie 1982 film The Ratepayers Iolanthe 1984 Olivier Awardwinning musical adapted by Ned Sherrin and Alistair Beaton166 Metropolitan Mikado political satire adapted by Sherrin and Beaton first performed at Queen Elizabeth Hall 1985 starring Louise Gold Simon Butteriss Rosemary Ashe Robert Meadmore and Martin Smith167 Di Yam Gazlonim by Al Grand 1986 a Yiddish adaptation of Pirates a New York production was nominated for a 2007 Drama Desk Award168 Pinafore A Saucy Sexy ShipShape New Musical adapted by Mark Savage first performed at the Celebration Theater in Los Angeles California in 2001 only one character is female and all but one of the male characters are gay 169 Gondoliers A Mafiathemed adaptation of the opera broadly rewritten by John Doyle and orchestrated and arranged Sarah Travis was given at the Watermill Theatre and transferred to the Apollo Theatre in the West End in 2001 The production utilised Doyles signature conceit of the actors playing their own orchestra instruments 170 Parsons Pirates by Opera della Luna 2002 The Ghosts of Ruddigore by Opera della Luna 2003 Pinafore Swing Watermill Theatre 2004 another Doyle adaptation in which the actors double as the orchestra171 See alsoedit Gilbert and Sullivan performers List of songwriter tandems People associated with Gilbert and Sullivan Davis Peter G Smooth Sailing New York magazine 21 January 2002 accessed 6 November 2007 a b Leigh Mike True anarchists The Guardian 4 November 2007 accessed 6 November 2007 Form and symmetry he seems to possess by instinct rhythm and melody clothe everything he touches the music shows not only sympathetic genius but sense judgement proportion and a complete absence of pedantry and pretension while the orchestration is distinguished by a happy and original beauty hardly surpassed by the greatest masters Sir George Grove Arthur Sullivan 1842–1900 The Musical Times December 1900 accessed 28 October 2007 Gian Andrea Mazzucato in The Musical Standard of 30 December 1899 Sullivan will be classed among the epochmaking composers the select few whose genius and strength of will empowered them to find and found a national school of music that is to endow their countrymen with the undefinable yet positive means of evoking in a mans soul by the magic of sound those delicate nuances of feeling which are characteristic of the emotional power of each different race Quoted in the Sir Arthur Sullivan Society Journal No 34 Spring 1992 pp 11–12 Bradley 2005 Chapter 1 a b c Hewett Ivan The Magic of Gilbert and Sullivan The Telegraph 2 August 2009 accessed 14 April 2010 a b Downs Peter Actors Cast Away Cares Hartford Courant 18 October 2006 a b c d e f g h Crowther Andrew The Carpet Quarrel Explained The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive 28 June 1997 accessed 6 November 2007 a b Crowther Andrew The Life of W S Gilbert The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 Stedman pp 26–29 123–24 and the introduction to Gilberts Foggertys Fairy and Other Tales Bond Jessie The Reminiscences of Jessie Bond Introduction The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 May 2007 Bond created the mezzosoprano roles in most of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas and is here leading into a description of Gilberts role in reforming the Victorian theatre Stedman pp 62–68 Bond Jessie The Reminiscences of Jessie Bond Introduction The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 Crowther Andrew Ages AgoEarly Days The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 They met at a rehearsal for a second run of Gilberts Ages Ago at the Gallery of Illustration probably in July 1870 See Crowther 2011 p 84 a b An Illustrated Interview with Sir Arthur Sullivan by Arthur H Lawrence Part 1 The Strand Magazine Volume xiv No 84 December 1897 See also Sullivans Letter to The Times 27 October 1881 Issue 30336 pg 8 col C Shepherd Marc Discography of Sir Arthur Sullivan Orchestral and Band Music The Gilbert and Sullivan Discography accessed 10 June 2007 Stephen Turnbulls Biography of W S Gilbert The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 22 November 2006 Harris Roger ed 1999 Cox and Box Chorleywood Herts UK R Clyde pp X–XI a b Tillett Selwyn and Spencer Roderic Forty Years of Thespis Scholarship text of talk delivered at the Sir Arthur Sullivan Society Festival weekend Cirencester 21 September 2002 JeanBernard Piat Guide du mélomane averti Le Livre de Poche 8026 Paris 1992 Walters Michael Thespis a reply W S Gilbert Society Journal Vol 4 part 3 Issue 29 Summer 2011 Williams chapter 1 Jacobs pp 2–3 Gillan Don Longest Running Plays in London and New York Stage Beauty 2007 accessed 23 July 2012 Barker John W Gilbert and Sullivan Madison Savoyards Ltd accessed 21 May 2007 quotes Sullivans recollection of Gilbert reading the libretto of Trial by Jury to him As soon as he had come to the last word he closed up the manuscript violently apparently unconscious of the fact that he had achieved his purpose so far as I was concerned in as much as I was screaming with laughter the whole time Walbrook H M 1922 Gilbert and Sullivan Opera a History and Comment Chapter 3 The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 May 2007 Ayer p 408 Wachs Kevin Let’s vary piracee With a little burglaree The Gasbag Issue 227 Winter 2005 accessed 8 May 2012 Wachs concludes that much of the material from a draft of this opera later made its way into Act II of The Pirates of Penzance The Sorcerer The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 May 2007 Gilbert was strongly influenced by the innovations in stagecraft now called stage direction by the playwrights James Planche and especially Tom Robertson See Gilbert W S A Stage Play and Bond Jessie Introduction a b CoxIfe William W S Gilbert Stage Director Dobson 1978 ISBN 0234772069 That Gilbert was a good director is not in doubt He was able to extract from his actors natural clear performances which served the Gilbertian requirements of outrageousness delivered straight Mike Leigh interview Baily p 335 Bond Jessie The Reminiscences of Jessie Bond Chapter 4 1930 reprinted at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive 15 November 2008 accessed 21 August 2012 Bradley 1996 p 115 Gillan Don List of longest running London shows up to 1920 Stage Beauty accessed 27 May 2009 Rosen Zvi S The Twilight of the Opera Pirates A Prehistory of the Right of Public Performance for Musical Compositions Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal Vol 24 2007 accessed 21 May 2007 See also Prestige Colin DOyly Carte and the Pirates a paper presented at the International Conference of G&S held at the University of Kansas May 1970 Gillan Don The Assault on The Opera Comique Stage Beauty 2007 accessed 27 May 2009 Samuels Edward International Copyright Relations in The Illustrated Story of Copyright Edwardsamuels com accessed 19 September 2011 Note the box When Gilbert and Sullivan attacked the Pirates Perry Helga Transcription of an opening night review in New York Savoyoperas org uk 27 November 2000 accessed 27 May 2009 Rosen Zvi S The Twilight of the Opera Pirates A Prehistory of the Right of Public Performance for Musical Compositions Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal Vol 24 2007 accessed 24 October 2012 Rich Frank Stage Pirates of Penzance on Broadway The New York Times 9 January 1981 accessed 2 July 2010 Theatre Record 19 May 1982 to 2 June 1982 p 278 Stone David Robert Cunningham 189293 Who Was Who in the DOyly Carte Opera Company 4 September 2009 accessed 25 May 2017 Ellmann Richard Oscar Wilde Knopf 1988 pp 135 and 151–152 ISBN 0394554841 See this article on the Savoy Theatre arthurlloyd co uk accessed 20 July 2007 See also Burgess Michael Richard DOyly Carte The Savoyard January 1975 pp 7–11 The longest was the operetta Les Cloches de Corneville which held the title until Dorothy in 1886 See this article on longest runs in the theatre up to 1920 Quoted in Allen 1975b p 176 William BeattyKingston Theatre 1 January 1883 quoted in Baily 1966 p 246 Cole Sarah Broken Hearts The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive 23 December 2000 accessed 21 August 2012 W S Gilbert The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes 1907–21 Volume XIII The Victorian Age Part One VIII NineteenthCentury Drama § 15 Bartleby com accessed 27 May 2009 Bradley 1996 p 176 Baily p 250 Stedman pp 200–01 Jacobs p 187 Gilbert eventually found another opportunity to present his lozenge plot in The Mountebanks written with Alfred Cellier in 1892 albeit with the repetition of the apocryphal swordfalling story see Jones Brian Spring 1985 The sword that never fell W S Gilbert Society Journal 1 1 22–25 Workers and Their Work Mr W S Gilbert Daily News 21 January 1885 reprinted at the Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 Review of The Mikado Pamphletpress org accessed 27 May 2009 Dark and Grey p 101 The longestrunning piece of musical theatre was the operetta Les Cloches de Corneville which held the title until Dorothy in 1886 See this article on longest runs in the theatre up to 1920 Wilson and Lloyd p 37 See hereand here See the Pall Mall Gazettes satire of Ruddygore Gilberts response to being told the two spellings meant the same thing was Not at all for that would mean that if I said that I admired your ruddy countenance which I do I would be saying that I liked your bloody cheek which I dont See this information from the Australian G&S site A copy of the Ruddigore libretto including material cut before the first night and during the initial run is available here PDF   294 KB Information from the book TitWillow or Notes and Jottings on Gilbert and Sullivan Operas by Guy H and Claude A Walmisley Privately Printed Undated early 20th century Perry Helga Ruddygore Illustrated London News 9 January 1887 Savoyoperas org uk accessed 27 May 2009 Critical apparatus in Hulme David Russell ed Ruddigore Oxford Oxford University Press 2000 Moratti Mel Yeomen Homepages ihug co nz 5 March 2000 accessed 27 May 2009 Quoted in Allen 1975 p 312 Jacobs p 283 Jacobs p 288 The Gondoliers at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 July 2007 a b Baily p 344 See e g Stedman pp 254–56 and 323–24 and Ainger pp 193–94 See e g Ainger p 288 or Wolfson p 3 See e g Jacobs p 73 Crowther Andrew The Life of W S Gilbert The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 and Bond Jessie The Reminiscences of Jessie Bond Chapter 16 The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 a b c d Ford Tom G&S the LennonMcCartney of the 19th century Limelight Magazine Haymarket Media Ltd 8 June 2011 Stedman p 270 a b Shepherd Marc Introduction Historical Context The Grand Duke p vii New York Oakapple Press 2009 Linked at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 7 July 2009 Gilberts Plays The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 Wolfson p 7 Wolfson passim Wolfson pp 61–65 Howarth Paul The Sorcerer 21st Anniversary Souvenir The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive 8 October 2009 accessed 21 August 2012 a b Walbrook H M The English Offenbach Gilbert & Sullivan Opera A History and a Comment reprinted at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive 28 September 2003 accessed 27 May 2009 Joseph p 146 Wilson and Lloyd p 83 Bailey p 425 Rollins and Witts passim Joseph passim Jellinek Hedy and George The One World of Gilbert and Sullivan Saturday Review 26 October 1968 pp 69–72 and 94 Sir Henry Woods foreword to Walbrook Chesterton G K introduction to Godwin Augustine Henry Gilbert & Sullivan A Critical Appreciation of the Savoy Operas E P Dutton & Co 1926 The Lasting Charm of Gilbert and Sullivan Operas of an Artificial World The Times 14 February 1957 p 5 a b c Bradley Ian Oh Joy Oh Rapture The Enduring Phenomenon of Gilbert and Sullivan 2005 Cellier and Bridgeman p 393 Cellier and Bridgeman p 394 Cellier and Bridgeman pp 394–96 Cellier and Bridgeman pp 398–99 Fletcher Juliet Yeomen of the Guard The Savoy Company celebrates 100 years of taking on Gilbert and Sullivan CityPaper September 2001 accessed 25 February 2012 The Savoy Company official website accessed 25 February 2012 The Land of Gilbert and Sullivan Life October 11 1948 vol 25 pp 86–87 Shepherd Marc The First DOyly Carte Recordings A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 18 November 2001 Shepherd Marc G&S Discography The Electrical Era A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 18 November 2001 Shepherd Marc The DOyly Carte Stereo Recordings Archived 17 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 24 December 2003 The Australian Opera list of productions 1970 1996 AusStage accessed 25 May 2009 Shepherd Marc G&S on Film TV and Video A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 18 November 2001 Shepherd Marc The G&S Operas on Radio Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 10 September 2008 accessed 9 December 2016 Shepherd Marc Description of New Sadlers Wells New DOyly Carte and Telarc recordings A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 27 August 2002 Shepherd Marc The Brent Walker Videos A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 5 April 2003 accessed 20 May 2010 For example NYGASP Carl Rosa Opera Company Opera della Luna Opera a la Carte Skylight opera theatre National Gilbert & Sullivan Opera Company and Ohio Light Opera Websites of Performing Groups The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 21 August 2012 Performances by cityComposer Arthur Sullivan operabase com accessed 21 May 2007 While the grand opera community has rarely embraced Gilbert and Sullivan as part of the regular opera repertory commentators have questioned the wisdom of this attitude See e g Duchen Jessica Its time to reassess Gilbert and Sullivan The Independent 14 September 2010 The Gala Ensemble The Best Of Gilbert & Sullivan Selby Times 7 December 2008 Compilation recording Shepherd Marc The Ohio Light Opera Recordings A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 16 July 2005 Lee Bernard Gilbert and Sullivan are still going strong after a century Sheffield Telegraph 1 August 2008 Gilbert and Sullivan Festival DVDs Accessed 20 May 2010 See Bradley 2005 pp 30 and 68 See also Saturday review of literature vol 33 issue 1 p 27 Saturday Review Associates 1950 Foreman Edward Authentic Singing The history of singing Pro Musica Press 2001 vol 1 p 392 and Library review Vol 22 p 62 MCB University Press Ltd 1970 Bradley 2005 Chapter 1 a b c Green Edward Balladssongs and speeches sic BBC 20 September 2004accessed 21 May 2007 References to Gilbert and Sullivan have appeared in the following U S Supreme Court rulings for example Allied Chemical Corp v Daiflon Inc 449 U S 33 36 1980 What never Well hardly ever and Richmond Newspapers Inc v Virginia 448 U S 555 604 1980 dissent of Justice Rehnquist quoting the Lord Chancellor Jones J Bush Our Musicals Ourselves pp 10–11 2003 Brandeis University Press Lebanon N H 2003 1584653116 Bargainnier Earl F W S Gilbert and American Musical Theatre pp 120–33 American Popular Music Readings from the Popular Press by Timothy E Scheurer Popular Press 1989 ISBN 0879724668 PG Wodehouse 1881–1975 guardian co uk accessed 21 May 2007 Robinson Arthur List of allusions to G&S in Wodehouse Home lagrange edu accessed 27 May 2009 Meyerson Harold and Ernest Harburg Who Put the Rainbow in the Wizard of Oz Yip Harburg Lyricist pp 15–17 Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press 1993 1st paperback edition 1995 Bradley 2005 p 9 Lesson 35Cole Porter Youre the Top PBS org American Masters for Teachers accessed 21 May 2007 Furia Philip Gershwin The Art of a Lyricist Oxford University Press accessed 21 May 2007 Introduction to The Noel Coward Song Book London Methuen 1953 p 9 Schwab Michael Why Gilbert and Sullivan Still Matter Rutgers Today 26 March 2012 Shepherd Marc List of links to reviews and analysis of recordings of G&S parodies Gilbert and Sullivan Discography accessed 27 May 2009 Bradley 2005 devotes an entire chapter chapter 8 to parodies and pastiches of G&S used in advertising comedy and journalism Shepherd Marc Review and analysis of Lehrers G&S parodies Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Gilbert and Sullivan Discography accessed 27 May 2009 Sherman Allan My Son the Celebrity 1963 Sherman Allan Track listing from Allan in Wonderland 1964 The Two Ronnies 1973 Christmas special Amazon co uk accessed 27 May 2009 Dame Hilda Brackett and Dr Evadne Hinge BBC h2g2 guide 17 July 2002 accessed 29 November 2010 Shepherd Marc Review and analysis of Anna Russells G&S parody Archived 25 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Gilbert and Sullivan Discography accessed 27 May 2009 For example in 1961 Guinness published an entire book of parodies of Gilbert and Sullivan lyrics illustrated with cartoons to advertise Guinness Stout The book by Anthony GrovesRaines with illustrations by Stanley Penn is called My Goodness My Gilbert and Sullivan Numerous examples of advertising uses of Gilbert and Sullivan and the bestknown Gilbert and Sullivan performers likenesses often in costume or endorsements are described in Cannon John Gilbert and Sullivan Celebrities in the World of Advertising Gilbert & Sullivan News pp 10–14 Vol IV No 13 Spring 2011 The Girl Said No 1937 Allmovie com accessed September 27 2015 Knights of Song at the IBDB database Lewis David Tarantara Tarantara at The Guide to Musical Theatre accessed 20 November 2009 See also Sullivan and Gilbert for an example of an offBroadway show about the Gilbert and Sullivan partnership Borsuk Alan J Sporting Stripes Set Rehnquist apart Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 4 September 2005 accessed 21 August 2012 See this Daily Mail editorial piece dated 29 June 2007 Shepherd Marc Overtures A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 2005 Sir Arthur Sullivan Interviewed by The Pall Mall Gazette 5 December 1889 accessed 21 August 2012 a b c d Hughes p 130 Rees Terence Thespis A Gilbert & Sullivan Enigma London 1964 Dillons University Bookshop p 79 Ainger p 140 Ainger pp 157 and 177 Ainger at p 195 writes That evening 21 April 1881 Sullivan gave his sketch of the overture to Eugene DAlbert to score DAlbert was a seventeenyearold student at the National Training School where Sullivan was the principal and supervisor of the composition dept and winner of the Mendelssohn Scholarship that year Several months before that Sullivan had given dAlbert the task of preparing a piano reduction of The Martyr of Antioch for use in choral rehearsals of that 1880 work David Russell Hulme studied the handwriting in the scores manuscript and confirmed that it is that of Eugen not of his father Charles as had erroneously been reported by Jacobs both of whose script he sampled and compared to the Patience manuscript Hulme Doctoral Thesis The Operettas of Sir Arthur Sullivan a study of available autograph full scores 1985 University of Wales pp 242–43 The Thesis is available from a number of libraries and many copies have been circulated including The British Library Document Supply Centre Boston Spa Wetherby W Yorks Ref DX171353 and Northern Illinois University Call ML410 S95 H841986B Stone David 2001 Hamilton Clarke Who Was Who in the DOyly Carte Opera Company The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive accessed 14 July 2008 Shepherd Marc The 1924 DOyly Carte Ruddigore The Gilbert and Sullivan Discography accessed 14 July 2008 Shepherd Marc Reviews of the HMV Electrical Ruddigore The Gramophone 1931 Gilbert and Sullivan Discography quoting from 1932 letter from Geoffrey Toye in The Gramophone February 1932 Vol IX p 371 accessed 22 August 2012 Hulme David Russell The Operettas of Sir Arthur Sullivan a study of available autograph full scores Doctoral Thesis 1985 University of Wales accessed 30 January 2014 Bradley 2005 pp 15–16 and W S Gilbert Society Journal Vol 4 Part 1 Summer 2010 Stedman p 331 Gilbert W S The Pinafore Picture Book London George Bell and Sons 1908 Gilbert W S The Story of The Mikado London Daniel OConnor 1921 Dillard pp 103–05 lists many examples Sands John Dance Arrangements from the Savoy Operas The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive 4 April 2010 The Ratepayers Iolanthe Walsh Maeve It Was 15 Years Ago Today The great Ned and Ken show The Independent 25 July 1999 accessed 1 February 2011 Schillinger Liesl Dress British Sing Yiddish The New York Times 22 October 2006 Shepherd Marc The Celebration Theater Pinafore 2002 A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography 3 June 2002 accessed 10 March 2009 Gondoliers Archived 17 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine Albemarle of London 2009 accessed 19 May 2011 Watermill – Pinafore Swing Collected newspaper reviews of Pinafore Swing Newbury theatre guide accessed 10 March 2009 Referencesedit Ainger Michael 2002 Gilbert and Sullivan a Dual Biography Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 0195147693   Allen Reginald 1975 The First Night Gilbert and Sullivan London Chappell & Co Ltd ISBN 0903443104   Baily Leslie 1966 The Gilbert and Sullivan Book new ed London Spring Books ISBN 0500130469   Bradley Ian 1996 The Complete Annotated Gilbert and Sullivan Oxford England Oxford University Press ISBN 019816503X   Bradley Ian 2005 Oh Joy Oh Rapture The Enduring Phenomenon of Gilbert and Sullivan Oxford University Press ISBN 0195167007   Cellier François and Cunningham Bridgeman 1914 Gilbert and Sullivan and Their Operas London Sir Isaac Pitman & sons ltd   Crowther Andrew 2011 Gilbert of Gilbert & Sullivan his Life and Character London The History Press ISBN 9780752455891   Dark Sidney Rowland Grey 1923 W S Gilbert His Life and Letters London Methuen pp  157–58   Dillard Philip H 1991 How quaint the ways of paradox Metuchen N J The Scarecrow Press Inc ISBN 0810824450   Hughes Gervase 1959 The Music of Sir Arthur Sullivan London Macmillan & Co Ltd   Available online here Jacobs Arthur 1986 Arthur Sullivan – A Victorian Musician Oxford University Press ISBN 0192820338   Joseph Tony 1994 DOyly Carte Opera Company 1875–1982 An Unofficial History London Bunthorne Books ISBN 0950799211   ISBN 0950799211 Stedman Jane W 1996 W S Gilbert A Classic Victorian & His Theatre Oxford University Press ISBN 0198161743   Walbrook H M 1922 Gilbert & Sullivan Opera A History and a Comment London F V White & Co Ltd   Williams Carolyn 2010 Gilbert and Sullivan Gender Genre Parody New York Columbia University Press ISBN 0231148046   Wilson Robin Frederic Lloyd 1984 Gilbert & Sullivan The Official DOyly Carte Picture History New York Alfred A Knopf Inc ISBN 0394541138   Wolfson John 1976 Final curtain The last Gilbert and Sullivan Operas London Chappell in association with A Deutsch ISBN 0903443120   ISBN 0903443120 Further readingedit Benford Harry 1999 The Gilbert & Sullivan Lexicon 3rd Revised Edition Ann Arbor Michigan The Queensbury Press ISBN 0966791614   Crowther Andrew 2000 Contradiction Contradicted – The Plays of W S Gilbert Associated University Presses ISBN 0838638392   Fitzgerald Percy Hetherington 1894 The Savoy Opera and the Savoyards London Chatto & Windus   Gilbert W S 1932 Deems Taylor ed Plays and Poems of W S Gilbert New York Random House   Gilbert W S 1976 The Complete Plays of Gilbert and Sullivan New York W W Norton and Company ISBN 0393008282   Gilbert W S 1994 The Savoy Operas Hertfordshire England Wordsworth Editions Ltd ISBN 1853263133   External linksedit The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive Historical survey of G&S University of Rochesters online Gilbert & Sullivan exhibit Savoynet G&S discussion list an emailbased G&S listserv The Gilbert and Sullivan Discography Appreciation societies and performing group links The Gilbert and Sullivan Society London Other appreciation societies Professional and Amateur performing groups worldwide listed at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive Links to Performing Societies Websites at St Davids Players website This is comprehensive for Britain but spotty for the rest of the world