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Jimmy Carter - Wikipedia Gloria Carter Spann (sister) Ruth Carter Stapleton (sister) Billy Carter (brother) Hugh Carter (cousin) Jason Carter (grandson) James Carter IV (grandson)


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Get movie: 60 Minutes Jimmy Carter September 19 2010

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Jimmy Carter - Wikipedia Gloria Carter Spann (sister) Ruth Carter Stapleton (sister) Billy Carter (brother) Hugh Carter (cousin) Jason Carter (grandson) James Carter IV (grandson)

Jimmy Carter - Wikipedia This article is about the 39th President of the United States 60 Minutes Jimmy Carter September 19 2010 For the submarine see USS Jimmy Carter SSN23 James Earl Carter redirects here For his father see James Earl Carter Sr James Earl Carter Jr born October 1 1924 is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981 A member of the Democratic Party he also served as the Governor of Georgia prior to his election as president Carter has remained active in public life during his postpresidency and in 2002 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center After graduating from high school Carter joined the United States Navy and served on submarines He left the Navy later in 1953 to return to his home state Georgia where he worked as a peanut farmer From 1963 to 1967 Carter served in the Georgia State Senate and in 1970 he was elected as Governor of Georgia defeating former Governor Carl Sanders in the Democratic primary He served as governor from 1971 to 1975 Despite being littleknown outside of Georgia at the start of the campaign Carter won the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination In the general election Carter defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford in a close election On his second day in office Carter pardoned all evaders of the Vietnam War drafts During Carters term as president two new cabinetlevel departments the Department of Energy and the Department of Education were established He established a national energy policy that included conservation price control and new technology In foreign affairs Carter pursued the Camp David Accords the Panama Canal Treaties the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SALT II and the return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama On the economic front he confronted persistent stagflation a combination of high inflation high unemployment and slow growth The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis the 1979 energy crisis the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan In response to the invasion Carter ended détente escalated the Cold War and led the international boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow In 1980 Carter faced a primary challenge from Senator Ted Kennedy but Carter won renomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention Carter lost the general election in an electoral landslide to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan Polls of historians and political scientists usually rank Carter as a below average president In 2012 Carter surpassed Herbert Hoover as the longestretired president in U S history and he is also the first president to mark the 40th anniversary of his inauguration He set up the Carter Center in 1982 as his base for advancing human rights He has also traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations observe elections and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations In addition Carter is considered a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project and he has written several books about various topics In reference to current political views he has criticized some of Israels actions and policies in regards to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and has advocated for a twostate solution He has vigorously opposed the Supreme Courts decision in Citizens United v FEC to strike down limits on campaign spending by corporations and unions saying that the U S is no longer a functioning democracy and now has a system of unlimited political bribery 2 Contents 1 Early life 2 Naval career 3 Farming 4 Early political career 1962–71 4 1 Georgia State Senator 1963–67 4 2 1966 and 1970 campaigns for governor 5 Governor of Georgia 1971–75 5 1 National ambition 6 1976 presidential campaign 6 1 Democratic primary 6 2 1976 general election 7 Presidency 1977–81 7 1 Iran hostage crisis 7 2 U S energy crisis 7 3 EPA Love Canal Superfund 7 4 Deregulation 7 5 Healthcare 7 6 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 7 7 International trips 7 8 1980 presidential campaign 8 Postpresidency 1981–present 8 1 Carter Center and Nobel Prize 8 2 Diplomacy 8 2 1 North Korea 8 2 2 Middle East 8 2 3 Africa 8 2 4 Americas 8 2 5 Southeast Asia 8 2 6 The Elders 8 3 Criticism of U S policy 8 3 1 Criticisms of Ronald Reagan 8 3 2 Criticisms of George W Bush 8 3 3 Criticism of the Clintons 8 3 4 Comments on Barack Obama 8 3 5 Comments on Donald Trump 8 4 Author 8 4 1 Palestine Peace Not Apartheid 8 5 Involvement with Bank of Credit and Commerce International 8 6 1984 Presidential race 8 7 1992 Presidential race 8 8 2004 Presidential race 8 9 2008 Presidential race 8 10 2012 Presidential race 8 11 2016 Presidential race 8 12 Hurricane relief 8 13 Other activities 9 Personal views 9 1 Abortion 9 2 Death penalty 9 3 Equality for women 9 4 Gun control 9 5 Samesex marriage 9 6 Race in politics 9 7 Torture 9 8 Healthcare 10 Personal life 10 1 Religion 10 2 Family 10 3 Cancer diagnosis 10 4 Funeral and burial plans 11 Public image and legacy 11 1 Public opinion 11 2 Legacy 11 3 Honors and awards 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 15 1 Primary sources 16 External links Early life Carter around age 13 with his dog Bozo in 1937 James Earl Carter Jr was born on October 1 1924 at the Wise Sanitarium in Plains Georgia note 1 He is a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter who settled in Virginia in 1635 Numerous generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia Carter is also a descendant of Thomas Cornell an ancestor of Cornell Universitys founder and distantly related to Richard Nixon and Bill Gates 4 Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carters birth His father James Earl Carter Sr was a successful local businessman who ran a general store and had begun to invest in farmland He had been a reserve second lieutenant in the U S Armys Quartermaster Corps during World War I Carters mother Bessie Lillian Gordy was a nurse at the Wise hospital Carter was the oldest of Earl and Lillians children they moved several times during his infancy 3 The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery which was almost entirely populated by impoverished African American families They eventually had three more children Gloria Ruth and Billy Carter got along well with his parents although his mother worked long hours and was often absent in his childhood Although Earl was staunchly prosegregation he allowed his son to befriend the black farmhands children Carter was an enterprising teenager who was given his own acre of Earls farmland where he grew packaged and sold peanuts He also rented out a section of tenant housing that he had purchased 3 Carter attended the Plains High School from 1937 to 1941 By that time the Great Depression had impoverished Archery and Plains but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies and Earl took a position as a community leader Young Jimmy was a diligent student with a fondness for reading A popular anecdote holds that he was passed over for valedictorian after he and his friends skipped school to venture downtown in a hot rod Carters truancy was mentioned in a local newspaper although it is not clear he would have been valedictorian anyway 5 Carters teacher Julia Coleman was an especially strong influence As an adolescent Carter played on the Plains High School basketball team he also joined the Future Farmers of America and developed a lifelong interest in woodworking 5 Naval career President Jimmy Carter and Admiral Hyman G Rickover USN far right aboard the submarine USS Los Angeles in 1977 Carter had long dreamed of attending the U S Naval Academy in Annapolis In 1941 he started undergraduate coursework in engineering at Georgia Southwestern College in nearby Americus The following year he transferred to the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta and he achieved admission to the Naval Academy in 1943 He was a good student but was seen as reserved and quiet in contrast to the academys culture of aggressive hazing of freshmen While at the academy Carter fell in love with his sister Ruths friend Rosalynn Smith whom he would marry shortly after his graduation in 1946 6 He was a sprint football player for the Navy Midshipmen 7 Carter graduated 60th out of 820 midshipmen in the class of 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as an ensign 8 From 1946 to 1953 Carter and Rosalynn lived in Virginia Hawaii Connecticut New York and California during his deployments in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets 9 In 1948 he began officers training for submarine duty and served aboard USS Pomfret He was promoted to lieutenant junior grade in 1949 In 1951 he became attached to the dieselelectric USS K1 a k a USS Barracuda qualified for command and served in several duties including Executive Officer In 1952 Carter began an association with the US Navys fledgling nuclear submarine program thenled by Captain Hyman G Rickover Rickovers demands on his men and machines were legendary and Carter later said that next to his parents Rickover was the greatest influence on his life 11 He was sent to the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington D C for three month temporary duty while Rosalynn moved with their children to Schenectady New York On December 12 1952 an accident with the experimental NRX reactor at Atomic Energy of Canadas Chalk River Laboratories caused a partial meltdown resulting in millions of liters of radioactive water flooding the reactor buildings basement and leaving the reactors core ruined 12 Carter was ordered to Chalk River to lead a U S maintenance crew that joined other American and Canadian service personnel to assist in the shutdown of the reactor 13 The painstaking process required each team member to don protective gear and be lowered individually into the reactor for a few minutes at a time limiting their exposure to radioactivity while they disassembled the crippled reactor During and after his presidency Carter said that his experience at Chalk River had shaped his views on atomic energy and led him to cease development of a neutron bomb 14 In March 1953 he began nuclear power school a sixmonth noncredit course covering nuclear power plant operation at Union College in Schenectady9 with the intent to eventually work aboard USS Seawolf which was planned to be one of the first two U S nuclear submarines However Carters father died two months before construction of Seawolf began and Carter sought and obtained a release from active duty to enable him to take over family peanut business Deciding to leave Schenectady proved difficult Settling after moving so much Rosalynn had grown comfortable with their life Returning to smalltown life in Plains seemed a monumental step backward she said later On the other hand Carter felt restricted by the rigidity of the military and yearned to assume a path more like his fathers Carter was honorably discharged from the Navy on October 9 1953 1516 He served in the inactive Navy Reserve until 1961 and left the service with the rank of lieutenant 17 Carters awards included the American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal China Service Medal and National Defense Service Medal 18 Farming Earl Carter died a relatively wealthy man having also recently been elected to the Georgia House of Representatives However between his forgiveness of debts and the division of his wealth among heirs his son Jimmy inherited comparatively little For a year Jimmy Rosalynn and their three sons lived in public housing in Plains Carter is the only U S president to have lived in subsidized housing Carter was knowledgeable in scientific and technological subjects and he set out to expand the familys peanutgrowing business The transition from Navy to agribusinessman was difficult because his first year harvest failed due to drought Carter was compelled to open several bank lines of credit to keep the farm afloat Meanwhile he also took classes and read up on agriculture while Rosalynn learned accounting to manage the businesss books Though they barely broke even the first year the Carters grew the business and became quite successful 1920 Early political career 1962–71 Georgia State Senator 1963–67 Racial tension was inflamed in Plains by the 1954 U S Supreme Courts antisegregation ruling in Brown v Board of Education 21 Carter was in favor of racial tolerance and integrationat one point the local White Citizens Council boycotted his peanut warehouse when he refused to join thembut he often kept those feelings to himself to avoid making enemies By 1961 he was a prominent member of the community and the Baptist Church as well as chairman of the Sumter County school board where he began to speak more loudly in favor of school integration 22 A state Senate seat was opened by the dissolution of Georgias County Unit System in 1962 Carter announced his run for the seat 15 days before the election Rosalynn who had an instinct for politics and organization was instrumental to his campaign The initial results showed Carter losing but this was the result of fraudulent voting orchestrated by Joe Hurst the Democratic Party chairman in Quitman County with the aid of the Quitman County sheriff 23 Carter challenged the results when fraud was confirmed a new election was held which he won 24 The Civil Rights Movement was well underway when Carter took office He and his family had become staunch John F Kennedy supporters Beginning in 1962 the town of Americus was the site of mass beatings and incarcerations of black protesters25 echoing similar unrest throughout the country Carter remained relatively quiet on the issue at first even as it polarized much of the county to avoid alienating his segregationist colleagues He did speak up on a few divisive issues giving speeches against literacy tests and against a change to the Georgia Constitution which he felt implied a compulsion to practice religion 26 A diligent legislator Carter took speedreading courses to keep up with the workload Within two years his connections landed him on the state Democratic Executive Committee where he helped rewrite the state partys rules He became chairman of the West Central Georgia Planning and Development Commission which oversaw the disbursement of federal and state grants for projects such as historic site restoration When Bo Callaway was elected to the U S House of Representatives in November 1964 Carter immediately began planning to unseat him The two had previously clashed over which twoyear college would be expanded to a fouryear college program by the state Carter wanted it to go to Georgia Southwestern College in Americus but Callaway wanted the funding to go to downtown Columbus Carter saw Callaway a Republican as a rival who represented the inherited wealth and selfishness he despised in politics 27 Carter was reelected in 1964 to serve a second twoyear term For a time in the State Senate he chaired its Education Committee he also sat on the Appropriations Committee toward the end of his second term Before his term ended he contributed to a bill expanding statewide education funding and getting Georgia Southwestern a fouryear program He leveraged his regional planning work giving speeches around the district to make himself more visible to potential voters The last day of the term he announced his run for Congress 28 1966 and 1970 campaigns for governor See also Georgia gubernatorial election 1966 and Georgia gubernatorial election 1970 The congressional race of 1966 was shaken up in midMay when the Republican incumbent Bo Callaway dropped out and decided to run for Governor of Georgia instead Callaway was a very strong candidate and state Democrats panicked over the prospect of losing the governorship they had held since Reconstruction Carter soon decided to follow Callaway and run for governor himself In the Democratic primary he ran as a moderate alternative to both the liberal former governor Ellis Arnall and the conservative Lester Maddox In a press conference he described his ideology as Conservative moderate liberal and middleoftheroad   I believe I am a more complicated person than that 29 He lost the Democratic primary but drew enough votes as a thirdplace candidate to force Arnall into a runoff election with Maddox A chain of events then resulted in Maddox the dark horse candidate being elected governor note 2 The result was a sharp blow to Carter who was left deeply in debt His attempt to rescue the race from Callaway had resulted in the unlikely election of the segregationist Maddox which he considered an even worse outcome 30 Carter returned to his agriculture business and during the next four years carefully planned his next campaign for governor in 1970 This period was a spiritual turning point for Carter he grew increasingly evangelical undertaking several religious missions in other states Inspired by his sister Ruth and liberal theologians such as Reinhold Niebuhr he declared himself born again a growing movement in 1960s America His last child Amy was born during this time on 19 October 1967 3132 The liberal former governor Carl Sanders was Carters main opponent in the 1970 Democratic primary Carter ran a more modern campaign this time around employing printed graphics and statistical analysis Responding to poll data Carter leaned more conservative than before He positioned himself as a populist quickly going negative against Sanders for his wealth labeling him Cufflinks Carl and associating him with the national Democratic Party He accused Sanders of corruption but when pressed by the media could come up with no evidence 3334 Throughout the campaign Carter sought both the black vote and the Wallace vote after the prominent segregationist George Wallace of Alabama While he met with black figures such as Martin Luther King Sr and Andrew Young and visited many blackowned businesses he also praised Wallace and promised to invite him to give a speech in Georgia He implied support or dislike of private schools depending on the audience The appeal to racism became more blatant over time Carters senior campaign aides handed out a photograph of his opponent Sanders celebrating with black basketball players 3334 That September Carter came ahead of Sanders in the first ballot by 49 to 38 percent leading to a runoff The subsequent campaign grew even more bitter despite his early support for civil rights Carters campaign criticized Sanders for supporting Martin Luther King Jr Carter won the runoff election with 60 percent of the votewinning 7 percent of the black voteand went on to win the general election easily over the Republican Hal Suit a local news anchor Once he was elected Carter changed his tone and began to speak against Georgias racist politics Leroy Johnson a black state Senator voiced his support for Carter saying I understand why he ran that kind of ultraconservative campaign   I dont believe you can win this state without being a racist 33 Governor of Georgia 1971–75 Carters official portrait as Governor Carter was sworn in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12 1971 He declared in his inaugural speech that the time of racial segregation is over No poor rural weak or black person should ever have to bear the additional burden of being deprived of the opportunity for an education a job or simple justice 35 The crowd was reportedly shocked by this message contrasting starkly with Georgias political culture and particularly Carters campaign The many segregationists who had supported Carter during the race felt betrayed Time magazine ran a story on the progressive New South governors elected that year in a May 1971 issue featuring a cover illustration of Carter 363738 Lester Maddox Carters predecessor as governor became lieutenant governor Carter had endorsed Maddox although the two did not campaign as a ticket The two found little common ground during their four years of service often publicly feuding with each other 39Richard Russell Jr then President pro tempore of the United States Senate died in office during Carters second week in office the newly inaugurated governor appointed David H Gambrell state Democratic Party chair to fill Russells unexpired term in the Senate 40 With Carters reluctance to engage in backslapping and political favors the legislature found him frustrating to work with 4142 He looked to aggressively expand the governors authority while reducing the complexity of the state government Therefore he negotiated a bill allowing him to propose executive restructuring and to force a vote on it He implemented zerobased budgeting within state departments and added a Judicial Selection Commission to verify the credentials of judges appointed by the governor 41 The reorganization plan was submitted in January 1972 but had a cool reception in the legislature But after two weeks of negotiations it was passed at midnight on the last day of the session 43 Ultimately he merged about 300 state agencies into 22a fact he would emphasize in his presidential runalthough it is disputed that there were any overall cost savings from doing so 44 Civil rights were a heartfelt priority for Carter He expanded the number of black state employees judges and board members He hired Rita Jackson Samuels a black woman to advise him on potential appointments 45 He placed portraits of Martin Luther King Jr and two other prominent black Georgians in the capitol building even as the Ku Klux Klan picketed the unveiling ceremony 46 Still Carter tried to keep his conservative allies comfortable He cosponsored an antibusing resolution with George Wallace at the 1971 National Governors Conference 45 After the U S Supreme Court threw out Georgias death penalty statute in Furman v Georgia 1972 Carter signed a revised death penalty statute which addressed the courts objections thus reintroducing the practice in the state Carter later regretted endorsing the death penalty saying I didnt see the injustice of it as I do now 47 Carter pushed reforms through the legislature to provide equal state aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia set up community centers for mentally handicapped children and increased educational programs for convicts He took pride in his program for the appointment of judges and state government officials Under this program all such appointments were based on merit rather than political influence 4849 In one of his more controversial decisions50 he vetoed a plan to build a dam on Georgias Flint River After surveying the river and the literature himself he argued that the U S Army Corps of Engineers was underestimating both the projects cost and its impact on the region The veto won the attention of environmentalists nationwide 46 When Lieutenant William Calley was convicted in a military trial and sentenced to life for his role in the My Lai Massacre in South Vietnam a politically polarizing issue Carter avoided paying direct tribute to Calley He instead instituted American Fighting Mans Day and asked Georgians to drive for a week with their lights on in support of the military 51 National ambition Looking toward a potential presidential run Carter engaged himself in national politics and public appearances He was named to several southern planning commissions and was a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention where the liberal U S Senator George McGovern was the likely presidential nominee Carter tried to ingratiate himself with the conservative antiMcGovern voters so that the convention would consider him for McGoverns running mate on a compromise ticket He endorsed Senator Henry Scoop Jackson in part to distance himself from George Wallace Carter was still fairly obscure at the time and his attempt at triangulation failed the 1972 Democratic ticket went to McGovern and Senator Thomas Eagleton 52note 3 After McGoverns loss in November 1972 Carter began meeting regularly with his fledgling campaign staff He had quietly decided to begin putting a presidential bid together He tried unsuccessfully to become chairman of the National Governors Association to boost his visibility On David Rockefellers endorsement he was named to the Trilateral Commission in April 1973 The following year he was named chairman of the Democratic National Committees congressional as well as gubernatorial campaigns 53 In 1973 he appeared on the game show Whats My Line where a group of celebrity panelists would try to guess his occupation None recognized him and it took several rounds of questionandanswer before movie critic Gene Shalit correctly guessed he was a governor 54 1976 presidential campaign Democratic primary Main article Democratic Party presidential primaries 1976 The electoral map of the 1976 election When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries in 1976 he was considered to have little chance against nationally betterknown politicians his name recognition was two percent As late as January 26 1976 Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic voters according to a Gallup poll citation needed Yet by midMarch 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination he also led President Ford by a few percentage points according to Shoup 55 As the Watergate scandal of President Nixon was still fresh in the voters minds Carters position as an outsider distant from Washington D C became an asset He promoted government reorganization Carter published Why Not the Best in June 1976 to help introduce himself to the American public 56 Carter and President Gerald Ford debating at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia Carter became the frontrunner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary He used a twoprong strategy in the South which most had tacitly conceded to Alabamas George Wallace Carter ran as a moderate favorite son When Wallace proved to be a spent force Carter swept the region In the North Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural voters he had little chance of winning a majority in most states He won several Northern states by building the largest single bloc Carters strategy involved reaching a region before another candidate could extend influence there He had traveled over 50000 miles visited 37 states and delivered over 200 speeches before any other candidate announced that he was in the race 57 Initially dismissed as a regional candidate58 Carter proved to be the Democrat with the most effective national strategy and he clinched the nomination Campaign flyer from Democratic Party presidential primary The national news media discovered and promoted Carter as Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media It was their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an edge propelling him rocketlike to the top of the opinion polls This helped Carter win key primary election victories enabling him to rise from an obscure public figure to Presidentelect in the short space of 9 months 59 Carter responding to an interviewer in April 1976 during his Presidential campaign said I have nothing against a community that is trying to maintain the ethnic purity of their neighborhoods as quoted in THE CAMPAIGN Candidate Carter I Apologize in TIME Magazine 19 April 1976 His remark was intended as supportive of openhousing laws but specifying opposition to government efforts to inject black families into a white neighborhood just to create some sort of integration 60 The remarks caused some controversy but Carter apologized for the unfortunate choice of words and his campaign was not seriously affected weasel words 1976 general election Main article United States presidential election 1976 He chose Senator Walter F Mondale as his running mate He attacked Washington in his speeches and offered a religious salve for the nations wounds 61 Carter and Gerald Ford faced off in three televised debates during the 1976 election 62 The debates were the first Presidential debates since 1960 6263 Carter was interviewed by Robert Scheer of Playboy for the November 1976 issue which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the election While discussing his religions view of pride Carter said Ive looked on a lot of women with lust Ive committed adultery in my heart many times 6465 This and his admission in another interview that he didnt mind if people uttered the word fuck led to a media feeding frenzy and critics lamenting the erosion of boundary between politicians and their private intimate lives 66 Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford who narrowed the gap during the campaign but lost to Carter in a narrow defeat on November 2 1976 Carter won the popular vote by 50 1 percent to 48 0 percent for Ford and received 297 electoral votes to Fords 240 Carter carried fewer states than Ford23 states to the defeated Fords 27yet Carter won with the largest percentage of the popular vote 50 1 percent of any nonincumbent since Dwight Eisenhower citation needed Presidency 1977–81 Robert Templetons portrait of President Carter displayed in the National Portrait Gallery Washington DC Main article Presidency of Jimmy Carter Carters tenure was a time of continuing inflation and recession as well as an energy crisis Among his first acts was the fulfillment of a campaign promise by issuing an executive order declaring unconditional amnesty for Vietnam Warera draft evaders 6768 On January 7 1980 Carter signed Law H R 5860 aka Public Law 96185 known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 bailing out Chrysler Corporation He canceled military pay raises during a time of high inflation and government deficits citation needed Carter attempted to calm various conflicts around the world most visibly in the Middle East with the signing of the Camp David Accords giving back the Panama Canal and signing the SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev His final year was marred by the Iran hostage crisis which contributed to his losing the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan 69 Iran hostage crisis Main article Iran hostage crisis See also Presidency of Jimmy Carter § Iran–Iraq War On November 4 1979 a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imams Line who were supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the U S Embassy in Tehran 70 Fiftytwo American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for the next 444 days until January 20 1981 During the crisis Carter remained in isolation in the White House for more than 100 days until he left to participate in the lighting of the National Menorah on the Ellipse 71 On April 24 1980 Carter ordered Operation Eagle Claw to try free the hostages The mission failed leaving eight American servicemen dead and causing the destruction of two aircraft U S energy crisis On April 18 1977 Carter delivered a televised speech declaring that the U S energy crisis during the 1970s was the moral equivalent of war He encouraged energy conservation by all U S citizens and installed solar water heating panels on the White House 7273 He wore sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House 74 Carter meeting Deng Xiaoping leader of China from 1978 to 1992 EPA Love Canal Superfund In 1978 Carter declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls New York More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood which was built on top of a toxic waste landfill The Superfund law was created in response to the situation 75 Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish the approximately 500 houses the 99th Street School and the 93rd Street School which were built on top of the dump and to remediate the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes This was the first time that such a process had been undertaken Carter acknowledged that several more Love Canals existed across the country and that discovering such hazardous dumpsites was one of the grimmest discoveries of our modern era 76 Deregulation President Jimmy Carter signs the Airline Deregulation Act In 1977 Carter appointed Alfred E Kahn a professor of economics at Cornell University to be chair of the Civil Aeronautics Board CAB He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry supported by leading economists leading think tanks in Washington a civil society coalition advocating the reform patterned on a coalition earlier developed for the truckandrailreform efforts the head of the regulatory agency Senate leadership the Carter administration and even some in the airline industry This coalition swiftly gained legislative results in 1978 citation needed The Airline Deregulation Act Pub L 95–504 was signed into law by President Carter on October 24 1978 The main purpose of the act was to remove government control over fares routes and market entry of new airlines from commercial aviation The Civil Aeronautics Boards powers of regulation were to be phased out eventually allowing market forces to determine routes and fares The Act did not remove or diminish the FAAs regulatory powers over all aspects of airline safety citation needed In 1979 Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it legal to sell malt hops and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of Prohibition in the United States 77 This Carter deregulation led to an increase in home brewing over the 1980s and 1990s that by the 2000s had developed into a strong craft microbrew culture in the United States with 3418 micro breweries brewpubs and regional craft breweries in the United States by the end of 2014 78 Carter with King Hussein of Jordan and Shah of Iran in 1977 Carter Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Zbigniew Brzezinski in September 1978 Carter with King Khalid of Saudi Arabia in October 1978 Healthcare During his presidential campaign Carter embraced healthcare reform akin to the Ted Kennedysponsored bipartisan universal national health insurance 79 Carters proposals on healthcare while in office included an April 1977 mandatory health care cost proposal80 and a June 1979 proposal that provided private health insurance coverage 81 During 1978 Carter also conducted meetings with Kennedy for a compromise healthcare law that proved unsuccessful 82 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Communists under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki seized power in Afghanistan on April 27 1978 83 The new regimewhich was divided between Tarakis extremist Khalq faction and the more moderate Parchamsigned a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in December of that year 8384 Tarakis efforts to improve secular education and redistribute land were accompanied by mass executions including of many conservative religious leaders and political oppression unprecedented in Afghan history igniting a revolt by mujahideen rebels 83 Following a general uprising in April 1979 Taraki was deposed by Khalq rival Hafizullah Amin in September 8384 Amin was considered a brutal psychopath by foreign observers even the Soviets were alarmed by the brutality of the Afghan communists and suspected Amin of being an agent of the U S Central Intelligence Agency CIA although that was not the case 838485 By December Amins government had lost control of much of the country prompting the Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan execute Amin and install Parcham leader Babrak Karmal as president 8384 Carter was surprised by the invasion as the consensus of the U S intelligence community during 1978 and 1979reiterated as late as September 29 1979was that Moscow would not intervene in force even if it appeared likely that the Khalq government was about to collapse Indeed Carters diary entries from November 1979 until the Soviet invasion in late December contain only two short references to Afghanistan and are instead preoccupied with the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran 86 In the West the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the Persian Gulf 84 Moreover the failure to accurately predict Soviet intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat to both Iran and Pakistan although it is now known that those fears were overblown For example U S intelligence closely followed Soviet exercises for an invasion of Iran throughout 1980 while an earlier warning from Carters national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski that if the Soviets came to dominate Afghanistan they could promote a separate Baluchistan  thus dismembering Pakistan and Iran took on new urgency 8586 These concerns were a major factor in the unrequited efforts of both the Carter and Reagan administrations to improve relations with Iran and resulted in massive aid to Pakistans Muhammad ZiaulHaq Zias ties with the U S had been strained during Carters presidency due to Pakistans nuclear program and the execution of Ali Bhutto in April 1979 but Carter told Brzezinski and secretary of state Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 that it was vital to repair our relationships with Pakistan in light of the unrest in Iran 86 One initiative Carter authorized to achieve this goal was a collaboration between the CIA and Pakistans InterServices Intelligence ISI through the ISI the CIA began providing some 500000 worth of nonlethal assistance to the mujahideen on July 3 1979several months prior to the Soviet invasion The modest scope of this early collaboration was likely influenced by the understanding later recounted by CIA official Robert Gates that a substantial U S covert aid program might have raised the stakes thereby causing the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously than otherwise intended 8687 In the aftermath of the invasion Carter was determined to respond vigorously to what he considered a dangerous provocation In a televised speech he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union promised renewed aid to Pakistan initiated renewed registration for the Selective Service System and committed the U S to the Persian Gulfs defense 868788 Carter also called for a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow which raised a bitter controversy 89 British prime minister Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carters tough stance although British intelligence believed the CIA was being too alarmist about the Soviet threat to Pakistan 86 The thrust of U S policy for the duration of the war was determined by Carter in early 1980 Carter initiated a program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistans ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia to match U S funding for this purpose U S support for the mujahideen accelerated under Carters successor Ronald Reagan at a final cost to U S taxpayers of some 3 billion The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 precipitating the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself 86 However the decision to route U S aid through Pakistan led to massive fraud as weapons sent to Karachi were frequently sold on the local market rather than delivered to the Afghan rebels Karachi soon became one of the most violent cities in the world Pakistan also controlled which rebels received assistance Of the seven mujahideen groups supported by Zias government four espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefsand these fundamentalists received most of the funding 84 Despite this Carter has expressed no regrets over his decision to support what he still considers the freedom fighters in Afghanistan 86 International trips Countries visited by Carter during his presidency Further information List of international trips made by the President of the United States § Jimmy Carter Carter made twelve international trips to twentyfive countries during his presidency 90 Carter was the first president to make a state visit to SubSaharan Africa when he went to Nigeria in 1978 His travel also included trips to Europe Asia and Latin America He made several trips to the Middle East to broker peace negotiations His December 31 1977 – January 1 1978 visit to Iran took place less than a year before the overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 91 1980 presidential campaign Main article United States presidential election 1980 The electoral map of the 1980 election Carter later wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party which he attributed to Ted Kennedys ambition to replace him as president 92 Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign and Carter won most of the primaries and secured renomination However Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party which gave Carter weak support in the fall election 93 Carters campaign for reelection in 1980 was one of the most difficult and least successful in history He faced strong challenges from the right Republican Ronald Reagan the center independent John B Anderson and the left Democrat Ted Kennedy He had to run against his own stagflationridden economy while the hostage crisis in Iran dominated the news every week He alienated liberal college students who were expected to be his base by reinstating registration for the military draft His campaign manager and former appointments secretary Timothy Kraft stepped down some five weeks before the general election amid what turned out to have been an uncorroborated allegation of cocaine use 94 Carter was defeated by Ronald Reagan in a landslide and the Senate went Republican for the first time since 1952 95 Postpresidency 1981–present This section of a biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification Please help by adding reliable sources Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately especially if potentially libelous or harmful August 2015 Former President and First Lady Carter wave from the departing aircraft after the inauguration of Ronald Reagan on January 20 1981 In 1981 Carter returned to Georgia to his peanut farm which he had placed into a blind trust during his presidency to avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest He found that the trustees had mismanaged the trust leaving him more than one million dollars in debt In the years that followed he has led an active life establishing the Carter Center building his presidential library teaching at Emory University in Atlanta and writing numerous books 61 He has also contributed to the expansion of Habitat for Humanity to build affordable housing Since early September 2012 Carter has been alive longer after leaving the White House than any other U S President 96 Carter Center and Nobel Prize Main article Carter Center President George W Bush invited former Presidents George H W Bush Bill Clinton Jimmy Carter far right and Presidentelect Barack Obama for a meeting and lunch at The White House on January 7 2009 Carter has been involved in a variety of national and international public policy conflict resolution human rights and charitable causes In 1982 he established the Carter Center in Atlanta to advance human rights and alleviate human suffering The nonprofit nongovernmental Center promotes democracy mediates and prevents conflicts and monitors the electoral process in support of free and fair elections It also works to improve global health through the control and eradication of diseases such as Guinea worm disease river blindness malaria trachoma lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis It also works to diminish the stigma of mental illnesses and improve nutrition through increased crop production in Africa citation needed A major accomplishment of The Carter Center has been the elimination of more than 99 percent of cases of Guinea worm disease from an estimated 3 5 million cases in 1986 to 148 reported cases in 201397 to 23 in 201598 The Carter Center has monitored 96 elections in 38 countries since 1989 99 It has worked to resolve conflicts in Haiti Bosnia Ethiopia North Korea Sudan and other countries Carter and the Center support human rights defenders around the world and have intervened with heads of state on their behalf citation needed In 2002 President Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts to advance democracy and human rights and to promote economic and social development through The Carter Center 100 Three sitting presidents Theodore Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson and Barack Obama have received the prize Carter is unique in receiving the award for his actions after leaving the presidency He is along with Martin Luther King Jr one of only two native Georgians to receive the Nobel Prize 101 Diplomacy North Korea In 1994 North Korea had expelled investigators from the International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin processing spent nuclear fuel In response thenPresident Clinton pressured for US sanctions and ordered large amounts of troops and vehicles into the area to brace for war citation needed Bill Clinton secretly recruited Carter to undertake a peace mission to North Korea102 under the guise that it was a private mission of Carters Clinton saw Carter as a way to let North Korean President Kim Ilsung back down without losing face 103 Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Ilsung but went further and outlined a treaty which he announced on CNN without the permission of the Clinton White House as a way to force the US into action The Clinton Administration signed a later version of the Agreed Framework under which North Korea agreed to freeze and ultimately dismantle its current nuclear program and comply with its nonproliferation obligations in exchange for oil deliveries the construction of two light water reactors to replace its graphite reactors and discussions for eventual diplomatic relations citation needed The agreement was widely hailed at the time as a significant diplomatic achievement 104105 However in December 2002 the Agreed Framework collapsed as a result of a dispute between the George W Bush Administration and the North Korean government of Kim Jongil In 2001 George W Bush had taken a confrontational position toward North Korea And in January 2002 Bush had named North Korea as part of an Axis of Evil Meanwhile North Korea began developing the capability to enrich uranium Bush Administration opponents of the Agreed Framework believed that the North Korean government never intended to give up a nuclear weapons program However supporters of the Agreed Framework believed that the agreement could have been successful had it not been undermined by the Bush Administration In August 2010 Carter traveled to North Korea in an attempt to secure the release of Aijalon Mahli Gomes Gomes a U S citizen was sentenced to eight years of hard labor after being found guilty of illegally entering North Korea Carter successfully secured the release 107 On August 10 2017 amid threats of weaponry by both North Korean and American leadership toward each other Carter assessed the rhetoric as having probably eliminated any chance of good faith peace talks between the United States and North Korea 108 During an appearance at the Carter Center on September 12 2017 Carter said North Korea was interested in having a peace treaty with the US guaranteeing neither country would attack barring their attacking a neighboring country and the US had declined doing so 109 Middle East In September 1981 Carter met with Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin at his home for discussions that during which Carter claimed Begin said his country was now willing to accept proposals on the Palestinian autonomy advanced by the Carter administration the previous year 110 In March 1983 Carter underwent a weeklong travel to Egypt where he met with Palestine Liberation Organization members stating during a subsequent March 8 press conference that he had traveled there as a Emory University professor and not to represent the US 111 During a June 20 2012 phone call with Jeffrey Brown Carter stressed Egyptian military generals could be granted full power executively and legislatively in addition to being able to form a new constitution in favor of themselves in the event their announced intentions go through Carter expressing distaste with the plan I hope it doesn’t go through and that the United States and others will speak out strongly enough to have influence on the military to control and to carry out the promises that they made to me and to the Egyptian people and to the international community 112 In May 2014 Carter issued a statement saying he was gravely concerned that Egypts democratic transition has faltered and called for the next President of Egypt to ensure the full spectrum of Egyptian society can participate meaningfully in politics 113 In October 2014 after the Carter Center closed its office in Egypt Carter explained the decision as resulting from Egypts current environment being not conducive to genuine democratic elections and civic participation 114 Carter and experts from The Carter Center assisted unofficial Israeli and Palestinian negotiators in designing a model agreement for peacecalled the Geneva Accordin 2002–2003 115 Carter has also in recent years become a frequent critic of Israels policies in Lebanon the West Bank and Gaza 116117 In 2006 at the UK Hay Festival Carter stated that Israel has at least 150 nuclear weapons He expressed his support for Israel as a country but criticized its domestic and foreign policy One of the greatest human rights crimes on earth is the starvation and imprisonment of 1 6m Palestinians said Carter 118 In December of that year during an interview Carter said When Israel does occupy this territory deep within the West Bank and connects the 200orso settlements with each other with a road and then prohibits the Palestinians from using that road or in many cases even crossing the road this perpetrates even worse instances of apartness or apartheid than we witnessed even in South Africa 119 He mentioned statistics showing nutritional intake of some Palestinian children was below that of the children of SubSaharan Africa and described the European position on Israel as supine 118 In April 2008 the Londonbased Arabic newspaper AlHayat reported that Carter met with exiled Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal on his visit to Syria The Carter Center initially did not confirm nor deny the story The US State Department considers Hamas a terrorist organization 120 Within this MidEast trip Carter also laid a wreath on the grave of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah on April 14 2008 121 Carter said on April 23 that neither Condoleezza Rice nor anyone else in the State Department had warned him against meeting with Hamas leaders during his trip 122 Carter spoke to Mashaal on several matters including formulas for prisoner exchange to obtain the release of Corporal Shalit 123 In May 2007 while arguing that the United States should directly talk to Iran Carter again stated that Israel has 150 nuclear weapons in its arsenal 124 In December 2008 Carter visited Damascus again where he met with Syrian President Bashar alAssad and the Hamas leadership During his visit he gave an exclusive interview to Forward Magazine the first ever interview for any American president current or former with a Syrian media outlet 125126 Carter visited with three officials from Hamas who have been living at the International Red Cross office in Jerusalem since July 2010 Israel believes that these three Hamas legislators had a role in the 2006 kidnapping of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit and has a deportation order set for them 127 In August 2014 Carter was joined by Mary Robinson during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict with the pair pressing for the inclusion of Hamas as an actor in peace talks with Israel recognition of the group as a legitimate political entity and the lifting of the siege of Gaza The two Elders in an oped article in Foreign Policy noted the recent unity deal between Hamas and Fatah when Hamas agreed with the Palestinian Authority to denounce violence recognize Israel and adhere to past agreements saying it presented an opportunity Carter and Robinson called on the UN Security Council to act on what they described as the inhumane conditions in Gaza and mandate an end to the siege 128 Africa Carter with former UN SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan leads an observer mission at South Sudans referendum on independence January 2011 Carter held summits in Egypt and Tunisia in 1995–1996 to address violence in the Great Lakes region of Africa 129 Carter played a key role in negotiation of the Nairobi Agreement in 1999 between Sudan and Uganda 130 On June 18 2007 Carter accompanied by his wife arrived in Dublin Ireland for talks with President Mary McAleese and Bertie Ahern concerning human rights On June 19 Carter attended and spoke at the annual Human Rights Forum at Croke Park An agreement between Irish Aid and The Carter Center was also signed on this day citation needed Americas In October 1984 Carter traveled to Machu Picchu being named by Mayor of Cusco Daniel Estrada as an honorary citizen 131 During April 2001 Carter endorsed the presidential and legislative elections in Peru as completely honest fair and transparent 132 In April 2009 Carter met with President of Peru Alan Garcia at Government Palace in Lima After the meeting Carter told the press We are happy and full of admiration for all the achievements of his Garcia’s Government 133 In February 1986 Carter traveled to Nicaragua for a threeday tour being welcomed by Vice President of Nicaragua Sergio Ramírez who said Carters visit was furthering the policy of peace as opposed to the policy of war carried out by the Reagan administration 134 In his talks with Tomás Borge Carter secured the release of journalist Luis Mora and labor leader Jose Altamirano saying during his departure that it was still possible for the US to regain the path we envisioned in 1979 135 Carter led a mission to Haiti in 1994 with Senator Sam Nunn and former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell to avert a USled multinational invasion and restore to power Haitis democratically elected president JeanBertrand Aristide 136 Carter visited Cuba in May 2002 and had full discussions with Fidel Castro and the Cuban government He was allowed to address the Cuban public uncensored on national television and radio with a speech that he wrote and presented in Spanish In the speech he called on the US to end an ineffective 43yearold economic embargo and on Castro to hold free elections improve human rights and allow greater civil liberties 137 He met with political dissidents visited the AIDS sanitarium a medical school a biotech facility an agricultural production cooperative and a school for disabled children and threw a pitch for an allstar baseball game in Havana The visit made Carter the first President of the United States in or out of office to visit the island since the Cuban revolution of 1959 138 Carter toured Cuba again for three days in March 2011 139 Carter observed the Venezuela recall elections on August 15 2004 European Union observers had declined to participate saying too many restrictions were put on them by the Hugo Chávez administration 140 A record number of voters turned out to defeat the recall attempt with a 59 percent no vote 141 The Carter Center stated that the process suffered from numerous irregularities but said it did not observe or receive evidence of fraud that would have changed the outcome of the vote 142 On the afternoon of August 16 2004 the day after the vote Carter and Organization of American States OAS Secretary General César Gaviria gave a joint press conference in which they endorsed the preliminary results announced by the National Electoral Council The monitors findings coincided with the partial returns announced today by the National Elections Council said Carter while Gaviria added that the OAS electoral observation missions members had found no element of fraud in the process Directing his remarks at opposition figures who made claims of widespread fraud in the voting Carter called on all Venezuelans to accept the results and work together for the future 143 A Penn Schoen & Berland Associates PSB exit poll had predicted that Chávez would lose by 20 percent when the election results showed him to have won by 20 percent Douglas Schoen commented I think it was a massive fraud 144US News & World Report offered an analysis of the polls indicating very good reason to believe that the Penn Schoen & Berland exit poll had the result right and that Chávezs election officials – and Carter and the American media – got it wrong The exit poll and the Venezuela governments control of election machines became the basis of claims of election fraud However an Associated Press report states that Penn Schoen & Berland used volunteers from prorecall organization Súmate for fieldwork and its results contradicted five other opposition exit polls 145 Following Ecuadors severing of ties with Colombia in March 2008 Carter brokered a deal for agreement between the countries respective presidents on the restoration of lowlevel diplomatic relations announced June 8 2008 146147 Southeast Asia In June 1985 Carter visited Cambodian refugees while touring KhaoIDang Carter stating his interest in eventually touring the whole place 148 On November 18 2009 Carter visited Vietnam to build houses for the poor The oneweek program known as Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project 2009 built 32 houses in Dong Xa village in the northern province of Hải Dương The project launch was scheduled for November 14 according to the news source which quoted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Nguyen Phuong Nga Administered by the nongovernmental and nonprofit Habitat for Humanity International HFHI the annual program of 2009 would build and repair 166 homes in Vietnam and some other Asian countries with the support of nearly 3000 volunteers around the world the organization said on its website HFHI has worked in Vietnam since 2001 to provide lowcost housing water and sanitation solutions for the poor It has worked in provinces like Tiền Giang and Đồng Nai as well as Ho Chi Minh City 149 The Elders Main article The Elders organization On July 18 2007 Carter joined Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg South Africa to announce his participation in The Elders a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues 150 The Elders work globally on thematic as well as geographically specific subjects The organizations priority issue areas include the Israeli–Palestinian conflict the Korean Peninsula Sudan and South Sudan sustainable development and equality for girls and women 151 Carter has been actively involved in the work of The Elders participating in visits to Cyprus the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East among others152 In October 2007 Carter toured Darfur with several of the Elders including Desmond Tutu Sudanese security prevented him from visiting a Darfuri tribal leader leading to a heated exchange 153 He returned to Sudan with fellow Elder Lakhdar Brahimi in May 2012 as part of The Elders efforts to encourage the presidents of Sudan and South Sudan to return to negotiations and highlight the impact of the conflict on civilians 154155 In November 2008 President Carter former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Graça Machel wife of Nelson Mandela were stopped from entering Zimbabwe to inspect the human rights situation by President Robert Mugabes government The Elders instead made their assessment from South Africa meeting with Zimbabwe and South Africabased leaders from politics business international organisations and civil society in Johannesburg 156 Criticism of U S policy Carter addresses the Alabama and Georgia delegations on the third morning of the 2008 Democratic National Convention In 2001 Carter criticized President Bill Clintons controversial pardon of Marc Rich calling it disgraceful and suggesting that Richs financial contributions to the Democratic Party were a factor in Clintons action 157 In June 2005 Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba which has been a focal point for recent claims of prisoner abuse 158 In September 2006 Carter was interviewed on the BBCs current affairs program Newsnight voicing his concern at the increasing influence of the Religious Right on US politics 159 In September 2009 Carter put weight behind allegations by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez pertaining to United States involvement in the 2002 Venezuelan coup détat attempt by a civilianmilitary junta saying that Washington knew about the coup and may have taken part 160 On June 16 2011 the 40th anniversary of Richard Nixons official declaration of Americas War on Drugs Carter wrote an oped in The New York Times urging the United States and the rest of the world to Call Off the Global War on Drugs161 explicitly endorsing the initiative released by the Global Commission on Drug Policy earlier that month and quoting a message he gave to Congress in 1977 saying that penalties against possession of a drug should not be more damaging to an individual than the use of the drug itself Criticisms of Ronald Reagan In March 1981 Carter cited his choice to refrain from critiquing Reagan was due to not enough time having passed within his tenure and predicted the next few months would see programs from his administration be viewed more favorably by the public 162 On March 31 after the attempted assassination Carter said danger was a consistent part of being president and President Reagans public appearances would not be curtailed 163 In a September 3 press conference Carter confirmed that he was in agreement with Reagan on building neutron arms in the wake of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan but said he hoped that when the Soviet Union is willing to implement the termination of aggression and move towards peace and the control of nuclear weapons our country will be ready to cooperate with them completely as we have been in the past 164 In October Carter traveled to Washington for the lobbying of senators in support of providing Saudi Arabia with Awacs radar surveillance aircraft and said he believed the Reagan administration was not doing enough in the Middle East 165 During a May 1 1982 fundraising dinner Carter called on Democrats and Republicans to work together in solving America economic issues instead of the Democrats condemning the Reagan administrations budget for the fiscal year of 1983 166 On September 20 Carter stated more American involvement might have prevented the deaths in the Sabra and Shatila massacre and charged the Reagan administration with belatedly playing its role as a strong mediator in bringing the parties together 167 On September 30 amid a fundraising dinner Carter responded to criticism made by President Reagan during a news conference two days prior on his administrations handling of the economy by saying his administration did not spend four years blaming our mistakes on our predecessors 168 On October 9 Carter expressed his distaste for his administration being blamed by President Reagan When I became president the responsibilities were mine They were not Gerald Fords Richard Nixons they were not John Kennedys Dwight Eisenhowers or Harry Trumans they were mine 169 On October 26 Carter called on the Reagan administration to support the Camp David agreement during a news conference Although it was tardy by about 18 months I was very pleased by the speech President Reagan made recently about his intentions for a Middle East peace 170 While speaking at a news conference on November 10 Carter outlined his distaste with President Reagan shifting US foreign and domestic policy and said There is always the temptation for an incumbent politician to blame all his mistakes on his predecessor Most are willing to withstand the temptation Mr Reagan apparently is not 171 In December 1984 during a press conference Carter asserted that the Reagan administration was inactive in making rescue efforts to retrieve four American businessmen from West Beirut Our government is not making any effort to seek the return of the hostages It is not a very publicized fact 172 In a March 1985 interview with 60 Minutes Carter said President Reagan was at fault for a lack of progression in peace within the Middle East and charged Reagan with being extremely successful in not being responsible for anything thats unpleasant 173 On April 11 Carter said that by supporting the Strategic Defense Initiative the Reagan administration was increasing misunderstanding between us and our allies and giving the Kremlin an advantage in public relations 174 In July of that year Carter expressed his disagreements with Reagans claim of an international conspiracy on the issue of terrorism and with some of the particular countries Reagan asserted as supporting terrorism to the American Bar Association 175 In February 1987 while speaking to students Carter differentiated his administration from Reagans by saying his own did not adhere to demands from terrorists and it was a lesson the Reagan administration could learn 176 In March 1987 Carter traveled to Damascus Syria where he expressed his belief that the Reagan administration had not retained peace efforts in the Middle East 177 In September 1987 Carter announced his opposition to Supreme Court nominee Robert Bork over the latters views on civil rights and associations in a letter to Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Joe Biden 178 During a September 14 interview Carter said the IranContra Affair was of my seriousness than Watergate and the conflict has encouraged terrorists 179 In October 1987 Carter urged President Reagan to invoke the War Powers Resolution arguing this would help alleviate the worldwide belief of Congress disapproving of the Persian Gulfs naval buildup 180 During an October 16 news conference Carter said Reagans policy in the Persian Gulf had been responsible for large increases in violence Almost inevitably and down through history whenever a nation like ours injects itself into the military conflict or a civil war like in Lebanon or sectional war like between Iran and Iraq we almost inevitably are destined to become involved as a belligerent 181 Criticisms of George W Bush Carter has criticized the presidency of George W Bush and the Iraq War In a 2003 oped in The New York Times Carter warned against the consequences of a war in Iraq and urged restraint in use of military force 182 In March 2004 Carter condemned George W Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war based upon lies and misinterpretations to oust Saddam Hussein In August 2006 Carter criticized Blair for being subservient to the Bush administration and accused Blair of giving unquestioning support to Bushs Iraq policies 183 In a May 2007 interview with the Arkansas DemocratGazette he said I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around the world this administration has been the worst in history when it comes to foreign affairs 184 Two days after the quote was published Carter told NBCs Today that the worst in history comment was careless or misinterpreted and that he wasnt comparing this administration with other administrations back through history but just with President Nixons 185 The day after the worst in history comment was published White House spokesman Tony Fratto said that Carter had become increasingly irrelevant with these kinds of comments 186 On May 19 2007 Blair made his final visit to Iraq before stepping down as British Prime Minister and Carter criticized him afterward Carter told the BBC that Blair was apparently subservient to Bush and criticized him for his blind support for the Iraq war 187 Carter described Blairs actions as abominable and stated that the British Prime Ministers almost undeviating support for the illadvised policies of President Bush in Iraq have been a major tragedy for the world Carter said he believes that had Blair distanced himself from the Bush administration during the runup to the invasion of Iraq in 2003 it might have made a crucial difference to American political and public opinion and consequently the invasion might not have gone ahead Carter states that one of the defenses of the Bush administration  has been okay we must be more correct in our actions than the world thinks because Great Britain is backing us So I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving their support to this tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the opposition less effective and prolonged the war and increased the tragedy that has resulted Carter expressed his hope that Blairs successor Gordon Brown would be less enthusiastic about Bushs Iraq policy 187 Speaking to the Syrian English monthly Forward Magazine of Syria Carter was asked to give one word that came to mind when mentioning President George W Bush His answer was the end of a very disappointing administration His reaction to mentioning Barack Obama was honesty intelligence and politically adept 188 Criticism of the Clintons Carter and Bill Clinton did not have a good relationship as Clinton had blamed one of President Carters policies for losing the governorship of Arkansas in 1980 Although Clinton was the first Democratic president to be elected after Carter the Carters were snubbed at the first Clinton inauguration Carter has publicly criticized the morality of President Clintons administration including the Monica Lewinsky scandal and the Marc Rich pardon Carter was also disenchanted with Clintons postpresidency activities including the latters 350000 speeches and glitz of his star and billionaire studded annual Clinton Global Initiative CGI meetings in New York While Clinton was seen as a rock star who made his trips to Africa on board the lavish private jets of his billionaire buddies and had an sleek expensive library for being mostly about selfaggrandizement Carter remained humble as he flew commercial airlines and founded the Carter Center to incubate good ideas 189 Due to his status as former president Carter was a superdelegate to the 2008 Democratic National Convention Carter announced his endorsement of Senator Barack Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton Carter cautioned against Hillary Clinton being picked for the vice president slot on the ticket saying I think it would be the worst mistake that could be made That would just accumulate the negative aspects of both candidates citing opinion polls showing 50 of US voters with a negative view of Hillary Clinton 190 During a phone interview a year after Hillary Clintons tenure of secretary of state in the Obama administration ended and she was succeeded by John Kerry Carter said In this occasion when Secretary Clinton was Secretary of State she took very little action to bring about peace It was only John Kerry’s coming into office that reinitiated all these very important and crucial issues 191 Comments on Barack Obama On January 28 2009 a week after the first inauguration of Barack Obama Carter said he believed Obama would be an outstanding president during an interview with Charlie Rose 192 Carter has criticized the Obama administration for its use of drone strikes against suspected terrorists Carter also said that he disagrees with President Obamas decision to keep the Guantánamo Bay detention camp open saying that the inmates have been tortured by waterboarding more than 100 times or intimidated with semiautomatic weapons power drills or threats to sexually assault their mothers He claimed that the U S government had no moral leadership and was committing human rights violations and is no longer the global champion of human rights 193 In July 2013 Carter expressed his criticism of current federal surveillance programs as disclosed by Edward Snowden indicating that America has no functioning democracy at this moment 194195 Comments on Donald Trump On September 13 2017 Carter said the publicity President Trump had brought to the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program by giving Congress a six month deadline to address the issue could result in comprehensive immigration reform not undertaken by both the Bush and Obama administrations while speaking to Emory University students 196 Author Further information Jimmy Carter bibliography Jimmy Carter at a book signing in Raleigh NC on April 2 2014 Carter has been a prolific author in his postpresidency writing 21 of his 23 books Among these is one he cowrote with his wife Rosalynn and a childrens book illustrated by his daughter Amy They cover a variety of topics including humanitarian work aging religion human rights and poetry Palestine Peace Not Apartheid Main articles Palestine Peace Not Apartheid and Commentary on Palestine Peace Not Apartheid See also Israel and the apartheid analogy In a 2007 speech to Brandeis University Carter stated I have spent a great deal of my adult life trying to bring peace to Israel and its neighbors based on justice and righteousness for the Palestinians These are the underlying purposes of my new book 198 In his book Palestine Peace Not Apartheid published in November 2006 Carter states Israels continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the Holy Land 199 He declares that Israels current policies in the Palestinian territories constitute a system of apartheid with two peoples occupying the same land but completely separated from each other with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic human rights 199 In an OpEd titled Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine published in the Los Angeles Times and other newspapers Carter states The ultimate purpose of my book is to present facts about the Middle East that are largely unknown in America to precipitate discussion and to help restart peace talks now absent for six years that can lead to permanent peace for Israel and its neighbors Another hope is that Jews and other Americans who share this same goal might be motivated to express their views even publicly and perhaps in concert I would be glad to help with that effort While some – such as a former Special Rapporteur for both the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the International Law Commission as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset – have praised Carter for speaking frankly about Palestinians in Israeli occupied lands others – including the envoy to the Middle East under Clinton as well as the first director of the Carter Center201202 – have accused him of antiIsraeli bias Specifically these critics have alleged significant factual errors omissions and misstatements in the book 203204 The 2007 documentary film Man from Plains follows President Carter during his tour for the controversial book and other humanitarian efforts 205 In December 2009 Carter apologized for any words or deeds that may have upset the Jewish community in an open letter meant to improve an often tense relationship He said he was offering an Al Het a prayer said on Yom Kippur the Jewish Day of Atonement 206 Involvement with Bank of Credit and Commerce International After Carter left the presidency his interest in the developing countries led him to having a close relationship with Agha Hasan Abedi the founder of Bank of Credit and Commerce International BCCI Abedi was a Pakistani whose bank had offices and business in a large number of developing countries He was introduced to Carter in 1982 by Bert Lance one of Carters closest friends Unknown to Carter BCCI had secretly purchased an interest in 1978 in National Bank of Georgia which had previously been run by Lance and had made loans to Carters peanut business Abedi made generous donations to the Carter Center and the Global 2000 Project citation needed Abedi also traveled with Carter to at least seven countries in connection with Carters charitable activities Jimmy Carter often advocated that BCCI was unique of all the banks that he had seen However it is argued that the main purpose of Abedis association with Carter was not charitable activities but to enhance BCCIs influence in order to open more offices and develop more business In 1991 BCCI was seized by regulators amid allegations of criminal activities including illegally having control of several U S banks 207 1984 Presidential race The possibility of Carter running for a nonconsective second term in 1984 was raised by commentators208 and favored by his wife Rosalynn 209 Walter Mondale Carters former Vice President who was mulling a presidential bid of his own met with Carter ahead of the election year to confront him on whether he intended to run 208 On May 10 1982 Carter stated he would support Mondale in the latters presidential bid during a press conference 210 In June Carter made an appearance at a dinner to raise funds for Democrats offering praise of Mondale who was also in attendance A lot of people say Fritz has been going around the country and he hasnt mentioned me very often but Fritz tonight you outdid yourself and were partners again 211 On July 18 1983 Carter said he believed President Reagan would still seek reelection despite a controversy over his campaign having had access to White House documents while in Japan 212 On August 30 Carter met with Mondale telling reporters ahead of the meeting that Mondale had successfully distanced himself from the Carter administration to prevent the affiliation from being used against him 213 During the 1984 Democratic presidential primary Carter officially endorsed Mondale 214 In a June 13 1984 interview Carter said he believed Reagan would back out of debating Mondale during the general election 215 On June 26 Carter announced that he would attend the 1984 Democratic National Convention and possibly speak but would hinder his remarks from taking Mondale by then the presumptive Democratic Party presidential nominee out of the spotlight Carter also advocated Mondale hasten the process of selecting a running mate 216 On November 7 after the election had taken place Carter stated Mondales loss had been predictable due to the latter stating his intent to raise taxes and that he did not believe any Democrat could win against Reagans reelection bid while speaking at a news conference 217 1992 Presidential race On February 22 1992 Carter met with Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas in Plains Georgia Carter advising Tsongas to have his allies in Massachusetts campaign for him with inperson appearances and thereby repeat the efforts of Carters own supporters during his successful bid Carter also stated that he would not make an endorsement ahead of the March 3 primary 218 On May 20 Carter met with former Governor of Arkansas Bill Clinton and afterward publicly praised Clinton labeling third party candidate Ross Perot right now as kind of anybodybuttheabove 219 In August Carter was joined by Democratic presidential nominee Clinton vice presidential nominee Al Gore and their wives Tipper Gore and Hillary Clinton in constructing a home for Habitat for Humanity in East Atlanta Carter stated that he hoped the 1992 Republican National Convention had some discussion on the subject of assisting the poor before it concluded the following day and that he was not bothered by attacks against his presidency at the Democratic National Convention 220 During the month Carter and Clinton spent a day campaigning together in Atlanta 221 After the election Carter said he expected to be consulted by Presidentelect Clinton during his tenure and that he had advised him to form a bipartisan study group to address most controversial issues 222 2004 Presidential race Carter supported John Kerry and during an interview said of him I look on Kerry as one who has gotten through his lifetime of experience exactly what is needed in makeup and battleground and learning and determination and his ideals to be the president we need now in this troubled time Carter spoke at the 2004 Democratic National Convention 223 2008 Presidential race In January 2008 during an interview with The Wall Street Journal Carter praised Senator Barack Obama and the latters presidential campaign saying the Carter family and himself had been positively impacted by his candidacy and predicting Obama will be almost automatically a healing factor in the animosity now that exists that relates to our country and its government 224 In April while in Abuja Carter noted the support among Obama from those closest to him Don’t forget that Obama won in my state of Georgia My town which is home to 625 people is for Obama my children and their spouses are proObama My grandchildren are also proObama 225 On May 25 Carter assessed that Senator Hillary Clinton would give it up after superdelegates voted following the conclusion of the June 3 primary 226 In an August 2008 interview227 Carter accused Republican presidential nominee John McCain of milking every possible drop of advantage in mentioning his status as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War 228 McCain responded to Carters comments during an appearance on Fox News I have great respect for former president Carter but its not first time we have disagreed I dont think most Americans share that view In fact most of my supporters say talk more about your experiences they were formative experiences 229 2012 Presidential race Despite being a Democrat Carter endorsed former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney in the Republican party 2012 Presidential primary in midSeptember 2011 not because he supported Romney but because he felt Obamas reelection bid would be strengthened in a race against Romney 230 Carter added that he thought Mitt Romney would lose in a match up against Obama and that he supported the presidents reelection 231 Carter addressed the Democratic National Convention in North Carolina by videotape and did not attend the convention in person 232 2016 Presidential race On July 8 2015 Carter said the statements made by Republican candidate Donald Trump on Mexican illegal immigrants were very stupid and illadvised He predicted that while Trump would secure a small percentage of supporters in the primary the latter was a flash in the pan 233 In a November 1 2015 interview Carter noted the contrasts between his own experiences seeking the presidency and the current political climate I think it is different now in the nation And I think it’s being caused by the fact that when people do get to Washington quite often there’s a stalemate there and both parties kind of relish the fact that they don’t get along with the other side  It’s a different environment 234 During a February 3 2016 appearance at the House of Lords in London Britain Carter was asked whom he would support for the presidency between Trump and Ted Cruz his main primary rival Carter selecting Trump and explaining that he had proven already that hes completely malleable I dont think he has any fixed opinions that he would really go to the White House and fight for 235 During a May 23 interview Carter said the Trump campaign had tapped a waiting reservoir there of inherent racism 236 During his video message at the 2016 Democratic National Convention in July Carter characterized Trump as seeming to reject the most important moral and ethical principles on which our nation was founded 237 In 2017 Carter disclosed that in the 2016 Democratic primary for President he had voted for Senator Bernie Sanders 238 In the general election he voted for Hillary Clinton 239 Hurricane relief In September 2005 Carter criticized the response by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to Hurricane Katrina as disgraceful and said the US should focus on rebuilding New Orleans during an annual session at the Atlantabased Carter Center 240 Following Hurricane Sandy Carter rebuilt homes in Union Beach as part of his affiliation with the Northeast Monmouth Habitat For Humanity an area affected by the hurricane 241 In September 2017 in response to Hurricane Harvey Carter wrote an oped for CNN in which he stated the virtuous side of Americans is demonstrated in the aftermath of disasters242 and appeared with all of the other former living presidents at the time in a public service announcement for One America Appeal a Hurricane Harvey relief effort fundraiser 243 Other activities Carter far right in 1991 with President George H W Bush and former Presidents Gerald Ford Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library Carter has participated in many ceremonial events such as the opening of his own presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan George H W Bush and Bill Clinton He has also participated in many forums lectures panels funerals and other events In 2006 Carter delivered a eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King and most recently at the funeral of his former political rival but later his close personal friend and diplomatic collaborator Gerald Ford 244 President Jimmy Carter serves as an Honorary Chair for the World Justice Project 245 The World Justice Project works to lead a global multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity 246 Carter served as Honorary Chair for the Continuity of Government Commission from 2003 to 2011 he was cochair with Gerald Ford until the latters death The Commission recommended improvements to continuity of government measures for the federal government 247 Personal views Abortion Although Carter was personally opposed to abortion he supported legalized abortion248 after the landmark US Supreme Court decision Roe v Wade 410 US 113 1973 As president he did not support increased federal funding for abortion services He was criticized by the American Civil Liberties Union for not doing enough to find alternatives 249 In a March 29 2012 interview with Laura Ingraham Carter expressed his current view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party becoming more prolife “ I never have believed that Jesus Christ would approve of abortions and that was one of the problems I had when I was president having to uphold Roe v Wade and I did everything I could to minimize the need for abortions I made it easy to adopt children for instance who were unwanted and also initiated the program called Women and Infant Children or WIC program thats still in existence now But except for the times when a mothers life is in danger or when a pregnancy is caused by rape or incest I would certainly not or never have approved of any abortions Ive signed a public letter calling for the Democratic Party at the next convention to espouse my position on abortion which is to minimize the need requirement for abortion and limit it only to women whose life sic are in danger or who are pregnant as a result of rape or incest I think if the Democratic Party would adopt that policy that would be acceptable to a lot of people who are now estranged from our party because of the abortion issue 250 ” Death penalty Carter is known for his strong opposition to the death penalty which he expressed during his presidential campaigns as had George McGovern Two successive nominees Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis also opposed the death penalty 251 In his Nobel Prize lecture Carter urged prohibition of the death penalty 252 He has continued to speak out against the death penalty in the US and abroad 253 In a letter to the Governor of New Mexico Bill Richardson Carter urged the governor to sign a bill to eliminate the death penalty and institute life in prison without parole instead New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 2009 Carter wrote As you know the United States is one of the few countries along with nations such as Saudi Arabia China and Cuba which still carry out the death penalty despite the ongoing tragedy of wrongful conviction and gross racial and classbased disparities that make impossible the fair implementation of this ultimate punishment 254 In 2012 Carter wrote an oped in the LA Times supporting passage of a state referendum which would have ended the death penalty He opened the article The process for administering the death penalty in the United States is broken beyond repair and it is time to choose a more effective and moral alternative California voters will have the opportunity to do this on election day 255 Carter has also called for commutations of death sentences for many deathrow inmates including Brian K Baldwin executed in 1999 in Alabama256Kenneth Foster sentence in Texas commuted in 2007257258 and Troy Anthony Davis executed in Georgia in 2011 259 Equality for women In October 2000 Carter a thirdgeneration Southern Baptist announced that he was severing connections to the Southern Baptist Convention over its opposition to women as pastors What led Carter to take this action was a doctrinal statement by the Convention adopted in June 2000 advocating a literal interpretation of the Bible This statement followed a position of the Convention two years previously advocating the submission of wives to their husbands Carter described the reason for his decision as due to an increasing inclination on the part of Southern Baptist Convention leaders to be more rigid on what is a Southern Baptist and exclusionary of accommodating those who differ from them The New York Times called Carters action the highestprofile defection yet from the Southern Baptist Convention 260 In subsequent years Carter has joined with other world leaders who have spoken out about the subjugation of women by religious and other institutions On July 15 2009 Carter wrote an opinion piece about equality for women in which he stated that he chooses equality for women over the dictates of the leadership of what has been a lifetime religious commitment He said that the view that women are inferior is not confined to one faith nor tragically does its influence stop at the walls of the church mosque synagogue or temple Carter stated The truth is that male religious leaders have hadand still havean option to interpret holy teachings either to exalt or subjugate women They have for their own selfish ends overwhelmingly chosen the latter Their continuing choice provides the foundation or justification for much of the pervasive persecution and abuse of women throughout the world This is in clear violation not just of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but also the teachings of Jesus Christ the Apostle Paul Moses and the prophets Muhammad and founders of other great religionsall of whom have called for proper and equitable treatment of all the children of God It is time we had the courage to challenge these views 261 In 2014 he published A Call to Action Women Religion Violence and Power 262 Gun control Carter has publicly expressed support for a ban on assault weapons and background checks of gun buyers 263 In May 1994 Carter and former presidents Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan wrote to the U S House of Representatives in support of banning semiautomatic assault guns 264 In a February 2013 appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight Carter agreed that if the assault weapons ban did not pass it would be mainly due to lobbying by the National Rifle Association and its pressure on weakkneed politicians 265 Samesex marriage Carter has stated that he supports samesex marriage in civil ceremonies 266 He has also stated that he believes Jesus would also support it saying I believe Jesus would I dont have any verse in scripture I believe Jesus would approve gay marriage but thats just my own personal belief I think Jesus would encourage any love affair if it was honest and sincere and was not damaging to anyone else and I dont see that gay marriage damages anyone else 267 In October 2014 Carter argued ahead of a Supreme Court ruling that legalization of samesex marriage should be left up to the states and not mandated by federal law 268 Race in politics Carter ignited debate in September 2009 when he stated I think an overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man that he is AfricanAmerican 269270 Obama disagreed with Carters assessment On CNN Obama stated Are there people out there who dont like me because of race Im sure there are  thats not the overriding issue here 271 Torture In a 2008 interview with Amnesty International Carter criticized the use of torture at Guantanamo Bay saying that it contravenes the basic principles on which this nation was founded 272 He stated that the next President should make the promise that the United States will never again torture a prisoner 273 Healthcare In an October 2013 interview Carter labeled the Affordable Care Act President Obamas major accomplishment and said the implementation of it now is questionable at best 274 In July 2017 Carter concluded the US would eventually see the implementation of a singlepayer healthcare system 275276 Personal life Carter in Plains 2008 Carter and his wife Rosalynn are well known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity a Georgiabased philanthropy that helps lowincome working people around the world to build and buy their own homes and access clean water 277 Carters hobbies include painting278flyfishing woodworking cycling tennis and skiing 279 He also has an interest in poetry particularly the works of Dylan Thomas 280 During a state visit to the UK in 1977 Carter suggested that Thomas should have a memorial in Poets Corner at Westminster Abbey this was an idea that came to fruition in 1982 280281282 Religion From a young age Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity He teaches Sunday school and is a deacon at the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of Plains 283284 As president Carter prayed several times a day and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man It asked If you were arrested for being a Christian would there be enough evidence to convict you285The New York Times noted that Carter had been instrumental in moving evangelical Christianity closer to the American mainstream during and after his presidency 286 In 2000 Carter severed his membership with the Southern Baptist Convention saying the groups doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs In April 2006 Carter former President Bill Clinton and Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the New Baptist Covenant The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists of all races cultures and convention affiliations Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention The group held its first meeting in Atlanta January 30 through February 1 2008 287 Family Carter had three younger siblings all of whom died of pancreatic cancer sisters Gloria Carter Spann 1926–1990 and Ruth Carter Stapleton 1929–1983 and brother Billy Carter 1937–1988 288 He was first cousin to politician Hugh Carter and a distant cousin to the Carter family of musicians 289 Farah Pahlavi Empress of Iran holds Jimmy Carter IV while Rosalynn Carter Caron Carter and Chip Carter watch January 1978 Carter and Rosalynn Smith were married in July 1946 They have three sons one daughter eight grandsons three granddaughters and two greatgrandsons They celebrated their 70th wedding anniversary in July 2016 making them the secondlongest wed Presidential couple after George and Barbara Bush Their eldest son Jack Carter was the 2006 Democratic candidate for U S Senate in Nevada before losing to the Republican incumbent John Ensign Carters grandson Jason Carter is a former Georgia State Senator290 and in 2014 was the Democratic candidate for governor of Georgia losing to the Republican incumbent Nathan Deal On December 20 2015 while teaching a Sunday school class Carter announced that his 28yearold grandson Jeremy Carter had died from an unspecified illness 291 Cancer diagnosis On August 3 2015 Carter underwent elective surgery to remove a small mass on his liver and his prognosis for a full recovery was initially said to be excellent On August 12 however Carter announced he had been diagnosed with cancer that had metastasized without specifying where the cancer had originated 292 On August 20 he disclosed that melanoma had been found in his brain and liver and that he had begun treatment with the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab and was about to start radiation therapy His healthcare is being managed by Emory Healthcare of Atlanta The former President has an extensive family history of cancer including both of his parents and all three of his siblings 293 On December 6 2015 Carter issued a statement that his medical scans no longer showed any cancer 294 On January 20 2017 at age 92 Carter became the oldest president to attend a presidential inauguration 295 Funeral and burial plans Carter has planned to be buried in front of his home in Plains Georgia Carter noted in 2006 that a funeral in Washington D C with visitation at the Carter Center was planned as well 296 Public image and legacy Public opinion In the wake of Nixons Watergate Scandal exit polls from the 1976 Presidential election suggested that many still held Gerald Fords pardon of Nixon against him 297 By comparison Carter was a sincere honest and wellmeaning Southerner 298 Carter began his term with a 66 percent approval rating299 which had dropped to 34 percent approval by the time he left office with 55 percent disapproving 300 In the 1980 campaign former California Governor Ronald Reagan projected an easy selfconfidence in contrast to Carters serious and introspective temperament What many people believed to be Carters personal attention to detail his pessimistic attitude his seeming indecisiveness and weakness with people were accentuated in contrast to what many people believed Reagans charismatic charm and delegation of tasks to subordinates 301 Reagan used the economic problems Iran hostage crisis and lack of Washington cooperation to portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader Like his immediate predecessor Gerald Ford Carter did not serve a second term as president Among those who were elected as president Carter was the first since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid 303 Carters postPresidency activities have been favorably received The Independent wrote Carter is widely considered a better man than he was a president 298 His presidential approval rating was just 31 percent immediately before the 1980 election but 64 percent approved of his performance as president in a 2009 poll 304 Legacy Carters presidency was initially viewed by some as a failure 305306307 In historical rankings of U S presidents the Carter presidency has ranged from No 19 to No 34 Although his presidency received mixed reception his peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts since he left office have made Carter renowned as one of the most successful exPresidents in American history 308309 The documentary Back Door Channels The Price of Peace 2009 credits Carters efforts at Camp David which brought peace between Israel and Egypt with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East The film opened the 2009 MonteCarlo Television Festival in an invitationonly royal screening310 on June 7 2009 at the Grimaldi Forum in the presence of Albert II Prince of Monaco 311 Honors and awards Main article List of honors and awards received by Jimmy Carter Carter has received numerous awards and accolades since his presidency and several institutions and locations have been named in his honor His presidential library Jimmy Carter Library and Museum was opened in 1986 312 In 1998 the U S Navy named the third and last Seawolfclass submarine honoring former President Carter and his service as a submariner officer It became one of the few Navy vessels to be named for a person living at the time of naming 313 That year he also received the United Nations Human Rights Prize given in honor of human rights achievements314 and the Hoover Medal recognizing engineers who have contributed to global causes 315 He won the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize316 which was partially a response to President George W Bushs threats of war against Iraq and Carters criticism of the Bush administration 317 Carter has been nominated seven times for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for audio recordings of his books and has won twicefor Our Endangered Values Americas Moral Crisis 2007 and A Full Life Reflections at 90 2016 318 The Souther Field Airport in Americus Georgia was renamed Jimmy Carter Regional Airport in 2009 319 Carter right walks with from left George H W Bush George W Bush and Bill Clinton during the dedication of the William J Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock Arkansas on November 18 2004 Carter during a Google Hangout session held during the LBJ Presidential Library Civil Rights Summit in 2014 Carter right with President Barack Obama center and Bill Clinton left on August 28 2013 the 50th anniversary of the March on Washington Carter left with a replica of the USS Jimmy Carter with Secretary of the Navy John H Dalton right at a naming ceremony April 28 1998 See also Biography portal United States Navy portal Government of the United States portal Georgia U S state portal Electoral history of Jimmy Carter History of the United States 1964–1980 History of the United States 1980–1988 List of peace activists Jimmy Carter rabbit incident Americo Makk portrait Hawaii Gift of State Mush From the Wimp incident Raymond Lee Harvey assassination conspirator List of Presidents of the United States List of Presidents of the United States sortable by previous experience Notes Carter was the first U S president to be born in a hospital 3 With Carter out of the race Maddox narrowly won the runoff ballot over Arnall clinching the Democratic nomination In the general election Callaway won a plurality of the vote but came short of the 50 percent majority The election was thus decided by the Georgia House of Representatives with its Democratic majority they settled on Maddox 30 Eagleton was later replaced on the ticket by Sargent Shriver References Jimmy Carter Leaves Southern Baptists ABC News retrieved April 30 2017 He said he will remain a deacon and Sunday school teacher at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains GA   Lavender Paige July 31 2015 Jimmy Carter Blasts U S ‘Political Bribery’ Huffington Post New York NY   a b c Bourne pp 11–32 Reitwiesner William Addams The Ancestors of Senator John Forbes Kerry b 1943 httpwww wargs compoliticalkerry html Accessed August 31 2016 a b Bourne pp 33–43 Bourne pp 44–55 Hingston Sandy April 24 2016 Why This Princeton Football Team Wont Be Suiting Up Next Season Philadelphia Retrieved November 5 2016   Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy v 1946–1947 p 33 a b Zelizer pp 11–12 Bourne pp 72–77 Frank Northen Magill 1995 Great Events from History II 1945–1966 p  554 ISBN 9780893567538   Martel Peter 2008 Memoirs of a Hayseed Physicist p  64 ISBN 9781606933411   Milnes Arthur January 28 2009 When Jimmy Carter faced radioactivity headon The Ottawa Citizen Archived from the original on February 17 2011   Bourne pp 77–81 Hayward p 23 Eckstein Megan March 9 2015 From Ensign to CommanderinChief A Look at the Presidents Who Served in the U S Navy Reserve USNI News Annapolis MD United States Navy Institute   Ocean Science News Washington DC Nautilus Press 1976 p  109 The Naval Record of James Earl Carter Jr Medals and awards American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal China Service Medal and Natl Defense Service Medal  Bourne pp 83–91 Morris p 115 Gherman Beverly 2004 Jimmy Carter Minneapolis MN Lerner Publishers p  40 ISBN 9780822508168   Bourne pp 92–108 Carter Jimmy 1992 Turning Point A Candidate a State and a Nation Come of Age New York NY Three Rivers Press pp  83–87 ISBN 9780812922998   Bourne pp 108–132 LymanBarner Kirk LymanBarner Cori 2014 Roots in the Cotton Patch The Clarence Jordan Symposium 2012 1 Eugene OR Cascade Books p  136 ISBN 9781620329856   Bourne pp 132–140 Bourne pp 132–145 Bourne pp 145–149 Bourne pp 149–153 a b Bourne pp 153–165 Bourne pp 165–179 Hayward pp 39–46 a b c Bourne pp 180–199 a b Hayward pp 46–51 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on December 1 2016 Retrieved 20161127   Bourne pp 200–201 Hayward pp 49–55 TIME Magazine Cover Gov Jimmy Carter Time May 31 1971 Retrieved July 8 2014   Bourne p 204 Bourne pp 201–202 a b Bourne pp 204–212 Hayward pp 55–56 Bourne pp 214–220 Freeman Roger A 1982 The Wayward Welfare State Hoover Press p  5 ISBN 9780817974930   a b Bourne pp 212–213 a b Bourne pp 250–251 Pilkington Ed November 11 2013 Jimmy Carter calls for fresh moratorium on death penalty The Guardian   Hugh S Sidey January 22 2012 Carter Jimmy World Book Student Archived from the original on April 27 2012   World Book Encyclopedia Hardcover Jimmy Carter entry World Book January 2001 ISBN 071660101X   Associated Press July 28 2008 Jimmy Carter battles plan for dams – again NBCNews com   Bourne pp 213–214 Bourne pp 221–230 Bourne pp 237–250 Zelizer p 15 Shoup 1980 The Carter Presidency and Beyond Mohr Charles July 16 1976 Choice of Mondale Helps To Reconcile the Liberals The New York Times   Jimmy Carter The American Experience Public Broadcasting System   Broder David December 18 1974 Early Evaluation Impossible on Presidential Candidates Toledo Blade p  16 Retrieved January 3 2016   Shoup Laurence H 1980 The Carter Presidency and Beyond Power and Politics in the 1980s Ramparts Press p  94 ISBN 9780878670758   Wikiquote Jimmy Carter Retrieved August 6 2017   a b American Presidency Brinkley and Dyer 2004 a b Howard Adam September 26 2016 10 Presidential Debates That Actually Made an Impact NBC News Retrieved 31 December 2016   Kraus Sidney 1979 The Great Debates Carter vs Ford 1976 Bloomington Indiana University Press p  3 Retrieved 31 December 2016   The Playboy Interview Jimmy Carter Robert Scheer Playboy November 1976 Vol 23 Iss 11 pp 63–86 CasserJayne Halli A YEAR IN MY PAJAMAS WITH PRESIDENT OBAMA The Politics of Strange Bedfellows Halli CasserJayne p  216 ISBN 9780976596035   Jimmy Carters Lust in the Heart Playboy Interview – 1976 Washington Post Executive Orders archives gov October 25 2010   Online NewsHour Remembering Vietnam Carters Pardon JIMMY CARTER AND THE IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS White House Historical Association Retrieved December 28 2014   The History Guy historyguy com   Jonathan D Sarna How Hanukkah Came To The White House Forward December 2 2009 Maine college to auction off former White House solar panels October 28 2004 Archived from the original on January 22 2010 Retrieved January 31 2010   Burdick Dave January 27 2009 White House Solar Panels What Ever Happened To Carters Solar Thermal Water Heater VIDEO Huffington Post Retrieved January 31 2010   Craig Shirley Days of Malaise and Jimmy Carters Solar Panels October 8 2010 Fox News Robert W Kolb Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society SAGE Publications 2008 Page 1305 Paul E Rosenfeld and Lydia Feng Risks of Hazardous Wastes William Andrew 2011 Philpott Tom August 17 2011 Beer Charts of the Day Motherjones com Retrieved December 10 2011   Number of Breweries Brewers Association Retrieved July 17 2015   Reinhold Robert April 17 1976 Carter proposes U S health plan says he favors mandatory insurance financed from wage and general taxes The New York Times p  1 Although Mr Carter left some details a bit vague today his proposal seemed almost identical to the socalled KennedyCorman health security plan His position on the issue is now substantially the same as that of his chief rivals Senator Hubert H Humphrey Senator Henry M Jackson and Representative Morris K Udall All three are cosponsors of the KennedyCorman bill  Auerbach Stuart April 17 1976 Carter gives broad outline for national health plan cost unknown The Washington Post p  A1 The outlines of Carters program are close to one sponsored by Sen Edward M Kennedy DMass and strongly supported by organized labor  UPI April 17 1976 Carter urges universal health plan Chicago Tribune p  4 Although Carter didnt provide an estimate of what his health plan would cost taxpayers it features many proposals similar to plans suggested by others including Sen Edward Kennedy D Mass which are estimated to cost at least 40 billion annually   1978 Hospital cost control Congressional Quarterly Almanac 95th Congress 1st Session 1977 33 Washington D C Congressional Quarterly pp  499–507 ISSN 00956007 OCLC 1564784   1980 National health insurance Congressional Quarterly Almanac 96th Congress 1st Session 60 Minutes Jimmy Carter September 19 2010 1979 35 Washington D C Congressional Quarterly pp  536–540 ISSN 00956007 OCLC 1564784   Zelizer Julian 2010 Jimmy Carter Times Books p  78 ISBN 9780805089578   a b c d e f Kaplan Robert D 2008 Soldiers of God With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan Knopf Doubleday pp  115–117 ISBN 9780307546982   a b c d e f Kepel Gilles 2006 Jihad The Trail of Political Islam I B Tauris pp  138–139 142–144 ISBN 9781845112578   a b Blight James G 2012 Becoming Enemies U S Iran Relations and the IranIraq War 19791988 Rowman & Littlefield Publishers pp  69–70 ISBN 9781442208308   a b c d e f g h Riedel Bruce 2014 What We Won Americas Secret War in Afghanistan 1979–1989 Brookings Institution Press pp  ix–xi 21–22 93 98–99 105 ISBN 9780815725954   a b Gates Bob 2007 From the Shadows The Ultimate Insiders Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War Simon and Schuster pp  145–147 ISBN 9781416543367   When asked whether he expected that the revelations in his memoir combined with an apocryphal quote attributed to Brzezinski would inspire a mindbending number of conspiracy theories which adamantlyand wronglyaccuse the Carter Administration of luring the Soviets into Afghanistan Gates replied No because there was no basis in fact for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into Afghanistan militarily See Gates email communication with John Bernell White Jr October 15 2011 as cited in White John Bernell May 2012 The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski How A Native Pole Used Afghanistan To Protect His Homeland PDF pp  45–46 82 Retrieved September 11 2016   cf Coll Steve 2004 Ghost Wars The Secret History of the CIA Afghanistan and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10 2001 Penguin p  581 ISBN 9781594200076 Contemporary memosparticularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasionmake clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail   Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism   Carter James Jimmy Carter State of the Union Address 1980 Selected Speeches of Jimmy Carter Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum Retrieved 30 May 2017   Toohey Kristine November 8 2007 The Olympic Games A Social Science Perspective CABI p  100 ISBN 9781845933555   Travels of President Jimmy Carter U S Department of State Office of the Historian   Most Important Presidential Visits No 7 Jimmy Carter Iran realclearworld com realclearworld Retrieved May 24 2016   Jimmy Carter 2005 Our Endangered Values Americas Moral Crisis Simon and Schuster p  8 ISBN 9780743284578   Steven F Hayward 2009 The Age of Reagan The Fall of the Old Liberal Order 1964–1980 Random House Digital Inc p  497 ISBN 9780307453709   Nation Kraft Drops Out September 29 1980 Time September 29 1980 Retrieved June 29 2013   Kazin Michael Edwards Rebecca Rothman Adam November 9 2009 The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History Two volume set Princeton University Press p  311 ISBN 1400833566   Jimmy Carter Sets Record for Longest PostWhite House Career The Carter Center September 7 2012 Retrieved August 23 2015   Carter Center Guinea Worm Eradication Program – Dracunculiasis The Carter Center Retrieved April 30 2014   Wiping Out Guinea Worm The Carter Center Retrieved January 13 2016   Carter Center list of elections observed The Carter Center Retrieved April 30 2014   Norwegian Nobel Committee 2002 Nobel Peace Prize announcement1 October 11 2002 Retrieved August 4 2008 Jimmy Carter Nobel Lecture nobelprize org   Marion V Creekmore A Moment of Crisis Jimmy Carter The Power of a Peacemaker and North Koreas Nuclear Ambitions 2006 Fred Kaplan Rolling Blunder Washington Monthly Retrieved June 8 2010   James Brooke September 5 2003 Carter Issues Warning on North Korea Standoff The New York Times Archived from the original on June 15 2010   Carter Issues Warning on North Korea Standoff Justin McCurry August 27 2010 North Korea releases US prisoner after talks with Jimmy Carter The Guardian London Retrieved September 6 2010   Hallerman Tamar August 10 2017 Jimmy Carter presses U S North Korea to tone down escalating rhetoric ajc com   Jimmy Carter brands US oligarchy & urges Trump to sign N Korea peace treaty rt com September 13 2017   Carter Begin set to compromise Chicago Tribune October 15 1981   Farrell William E March 8 1983 CARTER MEETS P L O OFFICALS IN EGYPT New York Times   Epatko Larisa June 20 2012 Jimmy Carter If Egypt’s Ruling Military Goes Through With Plan Same as Coup PBS   Jimmy Carter warns Egypt stands on the precipice The Guardian May 17 2014   Carter Center Closes Egypt Office Calls for Stronger Protections for Democratic Rights and Freedoms October 14 2014 BBC News Online Moderates launch Middle East plan December 1 2003 Retrieved August 4 2008 Douglas G Brinkley The Unfinished Presidency Jimmy Carters Journey to the Nobel Peace Prize 1999 pp 99–123 Kenneth W Stein My Problem with Jimmy Carters Book Middle East Quarterly 14 2 Spring 2007 a b Israel has 150 nuclear weapons BBC News May 26 2008   Jimmy Carter Israels Apartheid Policies Worse Than South Africas Haaretz com December 11 2006   Jimmy Carter Planning to meet Mashaal Archived April 29 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Jerusalem Post April 9 2008 PA to Carter Dont meet with Mashaal Archived April 29 2011 at the Wayback Machine Associated Press April 15 2008 Carter Rice did not advise against Hamas meeting CNN April 23 2008 Paris Lebanon and Syria Trip Report by Former US President Jimmy Carter December 5–16 2008 The Carter Center December 18 2008 Jimmy Carter says Israel had 150 nuclear weapons The Times PRUSA net PRUSA net November 1 2007 Archived from the original on May 16 2011 Retrieved June 8 2010   Jimmy Carter speaks to Forward Magazine Archived July 25 2015 at the Wayback Machine Erick Stakelbeck March 24 2011 Intl Red Cross Sheltering Hamas Terrorist Officials Cbn com Retrieved December 10 2011   Former U S President and exHuman Rights Council chief call for ICC probe into Gaza war Herald Globe Retrieved August 7 2014   Press Release African Leaders Gather to Address Great Lakes Crisis Archived July 19 2008 at the Wayback Machine May 2 1996 Retrieved August 4 2008 The Nairobi Agreement Archived May 18 2008 at the Wayback Machine December 8 1999 Retrieved August 4 2008 Jimmy Carter touring Peru UPI October 3 1984   Carter predicts fair presidential election in Peru CNN April 7 2001   Guerra Isabel April 30 2009 Peru’s President has earned US leaders’ admiration Jimmy Carter says Living in Peru   Wilkinson Tracy February 7 1986 Former President Jimmy Carter Thursday Arrived in Nicaragua and UPI   Wilkinson Tracy February 9 1986 Former President Jimmy Carter ending a three day tour of UPI   Larry Rohter Showdown with Haiti Diplomacy Carter in Haiti pursues peaceful shift The New York Times September 18 1994 Retrieved August 4 2008 Carter Center News July–December 2002 Retrieved August 4 2008 BBC News Lift Cuba embargo Carter tells US May 15 2002 Retrieved August 4 2008 Kornbluh Peter March 30 2011 Jimmy Carter Lift Trade Embargo Against Cuba The Nation   Jose De Cordoba and David Luhnow Venezuelans Rush to Vote on Chávez Polarized Nation Decides Whether to Recall President After Years of Political Rifts The Wall Street Journal Eastern edition New York City August 16 2004 p A11 Venezuelan Audit Confirms Victory BBC News September 21 2004 Retrieved November 5 2005 Carter Center 2005 Observing the Venezuela Presidential Recall Referendum Comprehensive Report Retrieved January 25 2006 Newman Lucia August 17 2004 Winner Chavez offers olive branch CNN Retrieved July 5 2008   M Barone Exit polls in Venezuela Archived July 16 2012 at the Wayback Machine US News & World Report August 20 2004 US Poll Firm in Hot Water in Venezuela Web archive org Archived from the original on August 20 2004 Retrieved November 29 2010   Ecuador and Colombia Presidents Accept President Carters Proposal to Renew Diplomatic Relations at the Level of Chargé dAffaires Immediately and Without Preconditions Press release The Carter Center June 8 2008 Retrieved June 8 2008   Colombia Ecuador restore ties under deal with Carter Thomson Reuters June 8 2008 Retrieved June 8 2008   Jimmy Carter visits Cambodian refugees UPI June 5 1985   Cựu Tổng thống Mỹ Jimmy Carter đến Việt Nam in Vietnamese What is The Elders The Elders Retrieved March 8 2013   Our Work The Elders Retrieved March 7 2013   Jimmy Carter The Elders Retrieved March 7 2013   Jimmy Carter blocked from meeting Darfur chief Reuters October 3 2007 Retrieved June 12 2012   Ian Timberlake May 27 2012 Sudan ready to withdraw troops from Abyei Jimmy Carter AFP Retrieved March 7 2013   Jimmy Carter and Lakhdar Brahimi in Sudan to support peace efforts The Elders May 27 2012 Retrieved March 7 2013   Annan Carter say barred from Zimbabwe Reuters November 22 2008 Retrieved March 7 2013   Carter slams Clinton pardon CNN February 21 2001 Archived from the original on May 17 2008 Retrieved July 5 2008   Associated Press Carter says US should close detention center at Guantanamo June 8 2005 Retrieved August 4 2008 Newsnight audio recording September 2006 BBC Americas – US likely behind Chavez coup Al Jazeera English September 21 2009 Retrieved June 8 2010   Carter Jimmy June 16 2011 Call Off the Global Drug War The New York Times   Thomas Helen March 16 1981 Too early to criticize Reagan says Carter UPI   Carter Declares Danger To Presidents Is Routine New York Times March 31 1981   Carter backs Reagan on neutron weapon UPI September 3 1981   CARTER TO LOBBY SENATE ON AWACS New York Times October 12 1981   CARTER ASKS BIPARTISAN EFFORT IN BUDGET CRISIS New York Times May 2 1982   Former President Jimmy Carter says the massacre of some UPI September 21 1982   Reagan ducks responsibilities Carter asserts Chicago Tribune October 1 1982   Holland Steve October 9 1982 Former President Jimmy Carter rebuked President Reagan Saturday at UPI   Former President Jimmy Carter today urged the Reagan administration UPI October 26 1982   Pippert Wesley G November 10 1982 Jimmy Carter criticized President Reagan Wednesday for making radical   Former President Jimmy Carter criticized the Reagan administration Sunday UPI   Former President Jimmy Carter criticized President Reagans lack of UPI March 24 1985   Shanker Thom April 12 1985 `Star Wars` May Hurt Talks Carter Warns Chicago Tribune   Carter Avoid force against terrorism UPI July 14 1985   Former President Jimmy Carter told students Monday that President UPI February 9 1987   Schmetzer Uli March 22 1987 Carter Reagan Not Tending To Mideast Chicago Tribune   Hanrahan John Former President Jimmy Carter declared Wednesday he is strongly UPI   Former presidents criticize Reagan on IranContra affair UPI November 30 1987   Carter Recommends That Reagan Invoke Act on War Powers New York Times October 17 1987   Quinn Matthew C October 17 1987 Carter criticizes Reagans gulf policy UPI   Jimmy Carter Just War – or a Just War The New York Times March 9 2003 Retrieved August 4 2008 Jimmy Carter Blair Subservient to Bush The Washington Post Associated Press August 27 2006 Retrieved July 5 2008   Frank Lockwood Carter calls Bush administration worst ever Arkansas DemocratGazette May 19 2007 Retrieved August 4 2008 Carter AntiBush remarks careless or misinterpreted CNN Associated Press May 21 2007 Archived from the original on June 14 2007 Retrieved June 22 2015   Carter is irrelevant Bush administration shoots back CNN Associated Press May 20 2007 Archived from the original on May 23 2007 Retrieved June 22 2015   a b Carter attacks Blairs Iraq role BBC News May 19 2007 Retrieved July 5 2008   Jimmy Carter Speaks to Forward Magazine Jan 2009 Archived from the original on November 9 2012 Retrieved April 12 2014   2 3 Shabad Rebecca April 10 2014 Carter dismisses Clintons State work The Hill   Alarkon Walter January 28 2009 Jimmy Carter Says Obama Will Be Outstanding The Hill   Bingham Amy June 25 2012 Jimmy Carter Accuses U S of Widespread Abuse of Human Rights ABC News Retrieved June 26 2012   ABC quotes came from a NY Times June 25 2012 oped written by Carter Greg Bluestein Jim Galloway July 18 2013 Your daily jolt America has no functioning democracy says Jimmy Carter Atlanta Journal Constitution Retrieved July 20 2013   Peter Schmitz July 17 2013 NSAAffäre ExPräsident Carter verdammt USSchnüffelei Der Spiegel Retrieved July 20 2013   ExPresident Carter Give Trump credit on forcing immigration debate Fox News September 14 2017   Interview President Jimmy Carter American Archive of Public Broadcasting WGBH and the Library of Congress Boston MA and Washington DC WEDU November 26 2003 Retrieved September 10 2016   Remarks by Former U S President Jimmy Carter at Brandeis University The Carter Center January 23 2007 Retrieved September 19 2010 a b Simon & Schuster Palestine Peace Not Apartheid Hardcover – Read an Excerpt Simon & Schuster November 2006 Retrieved April 9 2007 Dennis Ross Dont Play With Maps The New York Times January 9 2007 Retrieved January 4 2009 Kenneth W Stein My Problem with Jimmy Carters Book Middle East Forum Spring 2007 Retrieved January 4 2009 Julie Bosman Carter Book Stirs Furor With Its View of Israelis Apartheid The New York Times December 14 2006 Retrieved March 29 2008 Alan Dershowitz November 22 2006 The World According to Carter The New York Sun Retrieved September 25 2007   Sony Classics Pictures Jimmy Carter Man from Plains Retrieved August 4 2008 Archived May 5 2012 at the Wayback Machine ExPresident Carter offers apology to Jews Associated Press December 23 2009 Retrieved October 18 2011   16 – BCCI And Georgia Politicians Fas org Retrieved September 6 2010   a b Sperling Jr Godfrey Mondale in 84 he may run if Jimmy Carter doesnt csmonitor com   Thomas Helen April 25 1984 Rosalynn Carter Bitter at 1980 loss Wishes her husband would run again UPI   Carter Backs Mondale For Presidency in 1984 Chicago Tribune May 11 1982   Pippert Wesley G June 3 1982 We told the truth obeyed the law and kept the peace   Eastham Tom July 18 1983 Former U S President Jimmy Carter said today he does UPI   MONDALE WARNED AT CARTER MEETING New York Times August 31 1983   Mondale wins Carter hometown UPI March 14 1984   Carter Predicts That Reagan Will Avoid Debating Mondale New York Times June 14 1984   Campaign Notes Carter Vows to Shun Convention Spotlight New York Times June 28 1984   Rosenberg Carol November 7 1984 Former President Jimmy Carter said Wednesday Walter Mondales defeat UPI   De Witt Karen February 23 1992 THE 1992 CAMPAIGN Georgia Carter Welcomes Tsongas to Plains New York Times   Ifill Gwen May 21 1992 THE 1992 CAMPAIGN Carter With Clinton at His Side Praises the Candidates Qualities New York Times   Glasser Steve August 19 1992 Clinton and Gore help Carter build house UPI   Ifill Gwen August 20 1992 THE 1992 CAMPAIGN The Democrats Clinton Assails G O P Attacks Aimed at Wife New York Times   Carter ready to consult with Clinton UPI November 6 1992   Carter Kerry the president we need now CNN July 26 2004   Carter praises Obama CNN January 30 2008   Carter hints at supporting Obama CNN April 3 2008   Carter After June 3 it will be time for Clinton to give it up CNN May 26 2008   Carter McCain milking POW status UPI August 28 2008   Carter McCain milking POW time ABC News   Spillius Alex August 31 2008 John McCain rejects Jimmy Carter jibe that he is milking Vietnam service Telegraph   Could Jimmy Carters Comments Doom Mitt Romney The International Business Times Inc Retrieved September 22 2011   Yahoo News Jimmy Carter wants Mitt Romney to be the Republican nominee September 16 2011 Retrieved October 5 2011 Camia Catalina August 7 2012 Jimmy Carter to speak by video at Dem convention USA TODAY Retrieved August 7 2012   Schleifer Theodore July 8 2015 Jimmy Carter Trumps comments are very stupid CNN   Hensch Mark November 2 2015 Carter Dems GOP ‘hardly speak’ now The Hill   Condon Stephanie February 3 2016 Jimmy Carter I would choose Donald Trump over Ted Cruz CBS News   Goodstein Laurie May 24 2016 Jimmy Carter Seeing Resurgence of Racism Plans Baptist Conference for Unity New York Times   Gass Nick July 26 2016 Jimmy Carter blasts Trump for lack of moral and ethical principles Politico   Jimmy Carter Reveals He Voted for Bernie Sanders In Democratic Primary The Daily Beast 20170508 Retrieved 20170509   Sommerfeldt Chris August 23 2016 Jimmy Carter will vote for Hillary Clinton but calls both her and Donald Trump ‘quite unpopular’ New York Daily News New York City Retrieved 20170509   Jimmy Carter criticizes FEMAs role in Katrina relief wistv com September 21 2005   Robbins Christopher October 12 2013 Former President Carter joins effort to rebuild Sandyravaged Union Beach   Jimmy Carter When the waters rise so do our better angels CNN September 2 2017   Haag Matthew September 7 2017 ExU S Presidents Start Fund to Help Hurricane Harvey Victims   Carter praises distinguished opponent Ford at funeral CBC News CBC January 3 2007 Retrieved November 11 2015   Honorary Chairs World Justice Project Archived from the original on January 5 2009 Retrieved February 24 2010   About the Opportunity Fund World Justice Project Archived from the original on March 9 2010 Retrieved February 24 2010   Preserving Our Institutions The First Report of the Continuity of Government Commission The Brookings Institution Continuity of Government Commission Retrieved January 14 2012   JohnHenry Westen November 7 2005 Jimmy Carter Using Abortion to Split Support for Republicans LifeSiteNews com   Skinner Kudelia Mesquita Rice 2007 The Strategy of Campaigning University of Michigan Press ISBN 9780472116270 Retrieved October 20 2008  CS1 maint Multiple names authors list link Jimmy Carter Democratic Party Should Be More ProLife March 29 2012   Democrats shift on death penalty Boston Globe December 7 2003 Carter Nobel Peace Prize speech Archived November 16 2007 at the Wayback Machine CNN December 10 2002 Hill Elias C October 9 2012 The Mirage of Human Rights iUniverse p  200 ISBN 9781475948882   NEW VOICES Jimmy Carter Urges New Mexico Governor to Support Death Penalty Repeal Death Penalty Information Center Deathpenaltyinfo org Retrieved June 8 2010   Carter Jimmy Jimmy Carter to California Yes on Prop 34 oped LA Times October 28 2012 Retrieved March 5 2013 Brian Baldwin Center on Wrongful Convictions Law northwestern edu Retrieved June 8 2010   Jimmy Carter Desmond Tutu Urge Texas to Stay Execution of Kenneth Foster Democracynow org Retrieved June 8 2010   Clemency Death Penalty Information Center Deathpenaltyinfo org Retrieved June 8 2010   The Carter Center September 19 2008 Carter Center Press Releases – President Carter Calls for Clemency for Troy Davis The Carter Center Retrieved June 8 2010   Sengupta Somini October 21 2000 Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body The New York Times Retrieved December 17 2014   Losing my religion for equality Opinion Theage com au July 15 2009 A Call to Action Women Religion Violence and Power Simon & Schuster 2014 ISBN 9781476773957 OCLC 868276576   Carter Jimmy April 26 2009 What Happened to the Ban on Assault Weapons New York Times Oped Retrieved July 4 2014   Eaton William J May 5 1994 Ford Carter Reagan Push for Gun Ban Los Angeles Times Retrieved July 4 2014   Kurtz Jason February 22 2013 Clips From Last Night Jimmy Carter on firearm legislation the NRA and the conflict in the Middle East Cable News Network Retrieved July 4 2014   Former US president Jimmy Carter backs ‘very fine’ equal marriages for gays PinkNews 20 March 2012 Retrieved 21 January 2017   Buxton Ryan July 7 2015 Jimmy Carter Says Jesus Would Approve Of Gay Marriage httpwww huffingtonpost com20150707jimmycartergaymarriagen7744390 html Huffpost Politics Accessed May 30 2016 Jimmy Carter Gay marriage should be up to states USA TODAY 27 October 2014 Retrieved 21 January 2017   NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams News and videos from the evening broadcast NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams News and videos from the evening broadcast MSNBC Retrieved June 8 2010   White House disputes Carters analysis – Capitol Hill MSNBC September 16 2009 Retrieved June 8 2010   OBrien Michael September 19 2009 Obama plays down role of race in criticism – The Hills Blog Briefing Room Thehill com Retrieved June 8 2010   Torture can never be justified on YouTube Freedland Jonathan June 6 2008 I have moral authority The Guardian Retrieved December 28 2014   Delreal Jose October 31 2013 Carter ACA rollout questionable Politico   Radnofsky Louise July 23 2017 Jimmy Carter Believes U S Will Eventually Go to SinglePayer Health System Wall Street Journal   Eberhardt Robin July 24 2017 Jimmy Carter predicts US will eventually have singlepayer healthcare system The Hill   Greif Inc helps support Habitat for Humanitys 29th Annual Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project Habitat for Humanity Retrieved December 28 2014   Carter Jimmy Letter to Artist Mia LaBerge February 14 2008 Jimmy Carter – Biographical The Nobel Foundation Retrieved December 28 2014   a b Jimmy Carter to welcome visitors to Dylan Thomas house BBC News BBC November 9 2011 Retrieved November 11 2015   Dylan Thomas Westminster Abbey The Dean and Chapter of Westminster 2015 Retrieved November 11 2015   Wilson M J June 27 1977 Jimmy Carters Crusade for Dylan Thomas Wins a Supporterhis Grateful Widow Caitlin People Retrieved November 11 2015   Somini Sengupta Carter Sadly Turns Back on National Baptist Body The New York Times October 21 2000 Retrieved August 4 2008 Maranatha Baptist Church Retrieved August 4 2008 Carter Jimmy Richardson Don 1998 Conversations with Carter Lynne Rienner Publishers p  14 ISBN 1555878016   Sengupta S October 21 2000 Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body The New York Times Retrieved on March 31 2013 New Baptist Covenant Retrieved August 4 2008 Robert D Hershey Jr September 26 1988 Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51 Troubled Brother of a President The New York Times Retrieved July 27 2011   Cash John R with Patrick Carr 1997 Johnny Cash the Autobiography Harper Collins Hulse Carl May 11 2010 Veteran House Democrat Loses Seat in Primary NYTimes com New York Times Retrieved August 12 2015   Fantz Ashley Hassan Carma December 20 2015 Hours after death of grandson Jimmy Carter reveals the news to his church CNN Retrieved December 21 2015   Pramuk Jacob August 12 2015 Former President Jimmy Carter reveals he has cancer New York CNBC Retrieved August 12 2015   Olorunnipa Toluse August 20 2015 Jimmy Carter Says Hes Being Treated for Cancer in Brain Bloomberg News Retrieved August 20 2015   Statement from Former U S President Jimmy Carter Press release Carter Center December 6 2015   Reilly Katie January 20 2017 How Jimmy Carter Beat Cancer and Became the Oldest President to Attend an Inauguration Time Retrieved January 20 2017   Associated Press President Carter Talks of Funeral Plans December 4 2006 Retrieved February 11 2017 Polls Fords Image Improved Over Time CBS News December 27 2006   a b Jimmy Carter39th president – 1977–1981 The Independent London January 22 2009 Retrieved January 28 2009   What History Foretells for Obamas First Job Approval Rating Gallup com Retrieved December 10 2011   Bush Presidency Closes With 34 Approval 61 Disapproval Gallup com Archived from the original on January 19 2009 Retrieved December 10 2011   Disaffection of the public – Jimmy Carter – election Presidentprofiles com Retrieved December 10 2011   The Unfinished Presidency Jimmy Carters Journey Beyond the White House The New York Times 1998 Retrieved November 27 2015   Time kind to former presidents CNN poll finds CNN January 7 2009   Stillwell Cinnamon December 12 2006 Jimmy Carters Legacy of Failure SFGate Retrieved June 22 2015   Jimmy Carter Why He Failed brookings edu January 21 2000 Retrieved June 22 2015   Ponnuru Ramesh May 28 2008 In Carters Shadow Time Retrieved June 22 2015   Jimmy Carters PostPresidency American Experience PBS WGBH Retrieved June 22 2015   Brinkley Douglas Fall 1996 The rising stock of Jimmy Carter The hands on legacy of our thirtyninth President Diplomatic History 20 4 505–530 doi10 1111j 14677709 1996 tb00285 x   Gibb Lindsay June 4 2009 MonteCarlo TV fest opens with doc for first time Retrieved June 12 2012   WorldScreen com – Archives www worldscreen com Retrieved June 22 2015 Subscription required help   Applebome Peter May 30 1993 Carter Center More Than the Past The New York Times ISSN 03624331 Retrieved June 22 2015   McIntyre Jamie April 8 1998 Navy to name submarine after former president Jimmy Carter CNN Retrieved June 22 2015   HR Prize – List of previous recipients Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Retrieved June 22 2015   James Earl Carter Jr 1998 – ASME   The Nobel Peace Prize for 2002 to Jimmy Carter Press release Nobelprize org October 11 2002 Retrieved June 22 2015   Jimmy Carter wins Nobel Peace Prize CNN October 11 2002 Archived from the original on November 21 2009 Retrieved June 22 2015   Gregory Krieg February 15 2016 Former President Jimmy Carter wins Grammy Award CNN   Leeds Jeff Manly Lorne February 12 2007 Defiant Dixie Chicks Are Big Winners at the Grammys The New York Times ISSN 03624331 Retrieved June 22 2015   Judy Kurtz Jimmy Carter up for another Grammy The Hill December 7 2015 Jimmy Carter Regional Airport Becomes a Reality Fox News Associated Press October 11 2009 Retrieved June 22 2015   Further reading Allen Gary 1976 Jimmy Carter Jimmy Carter 76 Press ISBN 9780892450060   Annual register of the United States Naval Academy 1946–1947 Annapolis Maryland United States Naval Academy June 6 1946   Berggren D Jason Rae Nicol C 2006 Jimmy Carter and George W Bush Faith Foreign Policy and an Evangelical Presidential Style Presidential Studies Quarterly 36 4 606–632 ISSN 03604918 doi10 1111j 17415705 2006 02570 x Subscription required help   Bourne Peter G 1997 Jimmy Carter A Comprehensive Biography From Plains to PostPresidency New York Scribner ISBN 0684195437   Busch Andrew E 2005 Reagans Victory The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right University Press of Kansas   Clymer Kenton 2003 Jimmy Carter Human Rights and Cambodia Diplomatic History 27 2 245–278 ISSN 01452096 doi10 111114677709 00349 Subscription required help   Dumbrell John 1995 The Carter Presidency A Reevaluation 2nd ed Manchester UK Manchester University Press ISBN 0719046939   Fink Gary M Graham Hugh Davis eds 1998 The Carter Presidency Policy Choices in the PostNew Deal Era Lawrence University Press of Kansas ISBN 0700608958   Flint Andrew R Porter Joy March 2005 Jimmy Carter The reemergence of faithbased politics and the abortion rights issue Presidential Studies Quarterly 35 1 28–51 doi10 1111j 17415705 2004 00234 x   Freedman Robert 2005 The Religious Right and the Carter Administration The Historical Journal Cambridge University Press 48 1 231–260 ISSN 0018246X doi10 1017S0018246X04004285 Subscription required help   Gillon Steven M 1992 The Democrats Dilemma Walter F Mondale and the Liberal Legacy New York Columbia University Press ISBN 0231076304   Glad Betty 1980 Jimmy Carter In Search of the Great White House New York W W Norton ISBN 0393075273   Godbold E Stanly Jr 2010 Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter The Georgia Years 1924–1974 Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199779628   Hahn Dan F 1992 The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter 1976–1980 In Windt Theodore Ingold Beth Essays in Presidential Rhetoric 3rd ed Dubuque Iowa KendallHunt pp  331–365 ISBN 0840375689   Hargrove Erwin C 1988 Jimmy Carter as President Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press ISBN 0807114995   Harris David 2004 The Crisis the President the Prophet and the Shah – 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam Little Brown ISBN 9780316323949   Jones Charles O 1988 The Trusteeship Presidency Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press ISBN 080711426X   Jorden William J 1984 Panama Odyssey Austin University of Texas Press ISBN 0292764693   Kaufman Burton I 1993 The Presidency of James Earl Carter Jr Lawrence University Press of Kansas ISBN 070060572X   Keys Barbara J 2014 Reclaiming American Virtue The Human Rights Revolution of the 1970s Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press ISBN 9780674726031   Kucharsky David 1976 The Man From Plains The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter New York Harper & Row ISBN 0060648910   Mattson Kevin 2010 What the Heck Are You Up To Mr President Bloomsbury ISBN 9781608192069   Morgan Iwan 2004 Jimmy Carter Bill Clinton and the New Democratic Economics The Historical Journal Cambridge University Press 47 4 1015–1039 ISSN 0018246X doi10 1017S0018246X0400408X Subscription required help   Morris Kenneth Earl 1996 Jimmy Carter American Moralist University of Georgia Press   Ribuffo Leo P 1989 God and Jimmy Carter In M L Bradbury and James B Gilbert Transforming Faith The Sacred and Secular in Modern American History New York Greenwood Press pp  141–159 ISBN 0313257078   Ribuffo Leo P 1997 Malaise revisited Jimmy Carter and the crisis of confidence In John Patrick Diggins ed The Liberal Persuasion Arthur Schlesinger Jr and the Challenge of the American Past Princeton Princeton University Press pp  164–185 ISBN 0691048290  CS1 maint Extra text editors list link Rosenbaum Herbert D Ugrinsky Alexej eds 1994 The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter Westport Conn Greenwood Press pp  83–116 ISBN 0313288453   Schram Martin 1977 Running for President 1976 The Carter Campaign New York Stein and Day ISBN 0812822455   Schmitz David F Walker Vanessa 2004 Jimmy Carter and the Foreign Policy of Human Rights the Development of a Postcold War Foreign Policy Diplomatic History 28 1 113–143 ISSN 01452096 doi10 1111j 14677709 2004 00400 x Subscription required help   Strong Robert A Fall 1986 Recapturing leadership The Carter administration and the crisis of confidence Presidential Studies Quarterly 16 3 636–650   Strong Robert A 2000 Working in the World Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press ISBN 0807124451   Topics Thermostatic Legacy The New York Times January 1 1981 Section 1 Page 18 Column 1   Vogel Steve May 4 2000 Remembering Failed Iranian Mission Washington Post – via ArlingtonNationalCemetery net   White Theodore H 1982 America in Search of Itself The Making of the President 1956–1980 New York Harper & Row ISBN 0060390077   Witcover Jules 1977 Marathon The Pursuit of the Presidency 1972–1976 New York Viking Press ISBN 0670454613   Zelizer Julian 2010 Jimmy Carter Times Books ISBN 9780805089578   Primary sources Further information Jimmy Carter bibliography Califano Joseph A Jr 2007 1981 Governing America An insiders report from the White House and the Cabinet Simon and Schuster ISBN 9781416552116   Jordan Hamilton 1982 Crisis The Last Year of the Carter Presidency Putnam ISBN 9780399127380   Lance Bert 1991 The Truth of the Matter My Life in and out of Politics Summit ISBN 9780671690274   External links Official White House biography Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum Jimmy Carter National Historic Site Organizations The Carter Center Books and movies Works by Jimmy Carter at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jimmy Carter at Internet Archive Works by Jimmy Carter at Open Library Interviews speeches and statements Full audio of a number of Carter speeches at the Miller Center of Public Affairs Oral History Interview with Jimmy Carter 1974 at the Southern Oral History Program Carter Nobel lecture Oslo Norway December 10 2002 Appearances on CSPAN Life Portrait of Jimmy Carter from CSPANs American Presidents Life Portraits December 3 1999 Jimmy Carter at TED Media coverage Jimmy Carter collected news and commentary The New York Times   Jimmy Carter collected news and commentary The Guardian   Other Essays and information on Jimmy Carter each member of his cabinet and the First Lady – Miller Center of Public Affairs The Presidents Jimmy Carter 2011 an American Experience documentary Jimmy Carter on IMDb