13 Sep

Memorial of Saint Benedict, Abbot - Reading 1 Gn 32:23-33 In the course of the night, Jacob arose, took his two wives, with the two maidservants and his eleven children, and crossed the ford of the Jabbok.

Saint Benedict of Nursias detailed and fascinating life presented in a documentary that includes beautiful imagery paintings narration and facts Available


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Benedict of Nursia - Wikipedia Saint Benedict contributed more than anyone else to the rise of monasticism in the West. His Rule was the foundational document for thousands of religious ...

Benedict of Nursia - Wikipedia Saint Benedict redirects here Saint Benedict For other saints named Benedict see Benedict St Benedict redirects here For organisations with this name see St Benedicts Benedict of Nursia Latin Benedictus de Nursia Italian Benedetto da Norcia Vulgar Latin Benedecto Gothic 𐌱𐌴𐌽𐌴𐌳𐌹𐌺𐍄 Benedikt c 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD is a Christian saint who is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Churches the Catholic Church the Oriental Orthodox Churches the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches 1 He is a patron saint of Europe 2 Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco Lazio Italy about 40 miles 64 km to the east of Rome before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy The Order of Saint Benedict is of later origin and moreover not an order as commonly understood but merely a confederation of autonomous congregations 3 Benedicts main achievement is his Rule of Saint Benedict containing precepts for his monks It is heavily influenced by the writings of John Cassian and shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master But it also has a unique spirit of balance moderation and reasonableness ἐπιείκεια epieikeia and this persuaded most religious communities founded throughout the Middle Ages to adopt it As a result his Rule became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom For this reason Benedict is often called the founder of Western Christian monasticism Contents 1 Biography 2 Early life 3 Later life 4 Veneration 5 Rule of Saint Benedict 6 Saint Benedict Medal 7 Influence 8 See also 9 References 10 Gallery of pictures related to Saint Benedict 11 External links Biographyedit Apart from a short poem attributed to Mark of Monte Cassino the only ancient account of Benedict is found in the second volume of Pope Gregory Is fourbook Dialogues thought to have been written in 593 4 The authenticity of this work has been hotly disputed especially by Dr Francis Clarke in his two volume work The PseudoGregorian Dialogues Book Two consists of a prologue and thirtyeight succinct chapters 5 Gregory’s account of this saint’s life is not however a biography in the modern sense of the word It provides instead a spiritual portrait of the gentle disciplined abbot In a letter to Bishop Maximilian of Syracuse Gregory states his intention for his Dialogues saying they are a kind of floretum an anthology literally flowers of the most striking miracles of Italian holy men 6 Gregory did not set out to write a chronological historically anchored story of Saint Benedict but he did base his anecdotes on direct testimony To establish his authority Gregory explains that his information came from what he considered the best sources a handful of Benedict’s disciples who lived with the saint and witnessed his various miracles These followers he says are Constantinus who succeeded Benedict as Abbot of Monte Cassino Valentinianus Simplicius and Honoratus who was abbot of Subiaco when St Gregory wrote his Dialogues In Gregorys day history was not recognised as an independent field of study it was a branch of grammar or rhetoric and historia defined as story summed up the approach of the learned when they wrote what was at that time considered history 7 Gregory’s Dialogues Book Two then an authentic medieval hagiography cast as a conversation between the Pope and his deacon Peter is designed to teach spiritual lessons 4 Early lifeedit He was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia4 the modern Norcia in Umbria A tradition which Bede accepts makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica If 480 is accepted as the year of his birth the year of his abandonment of his studies and leaving home would be about 500 Saint Gregorys narrative makes it impossible to suppose him younger than 20 at the time He was old enough to be in the midst of his literary studies to understand the real meaning and worth of the dissolute and licentious lives of his companions and to have been deeply affected by the love of a woman He was at the beginning of life and he had at his disposal the means to a career as a Roman noble clearly he was not a child Benedict does not seem to have left Rome for the purpose of becoming a hermit but only to find some place away from the life of the great city He took his old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide 8 Enfide which the tradition of Subiaco identifies with the modern Affile is in the Simbruini mountains about forty miles from Rome and two from Subiaco Saint Benedict orders Saint Maurus to the rescue of Saint Placidus by Fra Filippo Lippi 1445 A D A short distance from Enfide is the entrance to a narrow gloomy valley penetrating the mountains and leading directly to Subiaco The path continues to ascend and the side of the ravine on which it runs becomes steeper until a cave is reached above which the mountain now rises almost perpendicularly while on the right it strikes in a rapid descent down to where in Saint Benedicts day 500 feet 150 m below lay the blue waters of the lake The cave has a large triangularshaped opening and is about ten feet deep On his way from Enfide Benedict met a monk Romanus of Subiaco whose monastery was on the mountain above the cliff overhanging the cave Romanus had discussed with Benedict the purpose which had brought him to Subiaco and had given him the monks habit By his advice Benedict became a hermit and for three years unknown to men lived in this cave above the lake One day the Devil brought before his imagination a beautiful woman he had formerly known inflaming his heart with strong desire for her Immediately Benedict stripped off his clothes and rolled into a thornbush until his body was lacerated Thus through the wounds of the body he cured the wounds of his soul 2 Later lifeedit Gregory tells us little of these years He now speaks of Benedict no longer as a youth puer but as a man vir of God Romanus he twice tells us served the saint in every way he could The monk apparently visited him frequently and on fixed days brought him food 8 During these three years of solitude broken only by occasional communications with the outer world and by the visits of Romanus Benedict matured both in mind and character in knowledge of himself and of his fellowman and at the same time he became not merely known to but secured the respect of those about him so much so that on the death of the abbot of a monastery in the neighbourhood identified by some with Vicovaro the community came to him and begged him to become its abbot Benedict was acquainted with the life and discipline of the monastery and knew that their manners were diverse from his and therefore that they would never agree together yet at length overcome with their entreaty he gave his consent ibid 3 The experiment failed the monks tried to poison him The legend goes that they first tried to poison his drink He prayed a blessing over the cup and the cup shattered Thus he left the group and went back to his cave at Subiaco There lived in the neighborhood a priest called Florentius who moved by envy tried to ruin him He tried to poison him with poisoned bread When he prayed a blessing over the bread a raven swept in and took the loaf away From this time his miracles seem to have become frequent and many people attracted by his sanctity and character came to Subiaco to be under his guidance Having failed by sending him poisonous bread Florentius tried to seduce his monks with some prostitutes To avoid further temptations in 530 Benedict left Subiaco He founded 12 monasteries in the vicinity of Subiaco and eventually in 530 he founded the great Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino2 which lies on a hilltop between Rome and Naples 9 During the invasion of Italy Totila King of the Goths ordered a general to wear his kingly robes and to see whether Benedict would discover the truth Immediately the Saint detected the impersonation and Totila came to pay him due respect 2 Venerationedit Eastern Orthodox icon of Saint Benedict Totila and Saint Benedict painted by Spinello Aretino He died at Monte Cassino not long after his sister Saint Scholastica Benedict died of a high fever on the day God had told him he was to die and was buried in the same place as his sister According to tradition this occurred on 21 March 543 or 547 He was named patron protector of Europe by Pope Paul VI in 1964 10 In 1980 Pope John Paul II declared him copatron of Europe together with Saints Cyril and Methodius 11 In the pre1970 General Roman Calendar his feast is kept on 21 March the day of his death according to some manuscripts of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum and that of Bede Because on that date his liturgical memorial would always be impeded by the observance of Lent the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar moved his memorial to 11 July the date that appears in some Gallic liturgical books of the end of the 8th century as the feast commemorating his birth Natalis S Benedicti There is some uncertainty about the origin of this feast 12 Accordingly on 21 March the Roman Martyrology mentions in a line and a half that it is Benedicts day of death and that his memorial is celebrated on 11 July while on 11 July it devotes seven lines to speaking of him and mentions the tradition that he died on 21 March 13 The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates Saint Benedict on 14 March 14 The Anglican Communion has no single universal calendar but a provincial calendar of saints is published in each province In almost all of these Saint Benedict is commemorated on 11 July Rule of Saint Benedictedit Main article Rule of Saint Benedict Seventythree short chapters comprise the Rule Its wisdom is of two kinds spiritual how to live a Christocentric life on earth and administrative how to run a monastery efficiently More than half the chapters describe how to be obedient and humble and what to do when a member of the community is not About onefourth regulate the work of God the Opus Dei Onetenth outline how and by whom the monastery should be managed Following the golden rule of Ora et Labora pray and work the monks each day devoted eight hours to prayer eight hours to sleep and eight hours to manual work sacred reading or works of charity 2 Saint Benedict Medaledit Main article Saint Benedict Medal Image of Saint Benedict with a cross which is inscribed Crux sacra sit mihi lux Non draco sit mihi dux May the holy cross be my light May the dragon never be my overlord and a scroll stating Vade retro Satana Nunquam suade mihi vana Sunt mala quae libas Ipse venena bibas Begone Satan Never tempt me with your vanities What you offer me is evil Drink the poison yourself or in briefVade Retro Satana which is abbreviated on the Saint Benedict Medal This medal originally came from a cross in honour of Saint Benedict On one side the medal has an image of Saint Benedict holding the Holy Rule in his left hand and a cross in his right There is a raven on one side of him with a cup on the other side of him Around the medals outer margin are the words Eius in obitu nostro praesentia muniamur May we at our death be fortified by His presence The other side of the medal has a cross with the initials CSSML on the vertical bar which signify Crux Sacra Sit Mihi Lux May the Holy Cross be my light and on the horizontal bar are the initials NDSMD which stand for Non Draco Sit Mihi Dux Let not the dragon be my overlord The initials CSPB stand for Crux Sancti Patris Benedicti The Cross of the Holy Father Benedict and are located on the interior angles of the cross Either the inscription PAX Peace or the Christogram IHS may be found at the top of the cross in most cases Around the medals margin on this side are the Vade Retro Satana initials VRSNSMV which stand for Vade Retro Satana Nonquam Suade Mihi Vana Begone Satan do not suggest to me thy vanities then a space followed by the initials SMQLIVB which signify Sunt Mala Quae Libas Ipse Venena Bibas Evil are the things thou profferest drink thou thy own poison 15 Benedict depicted on a Jubilee Saint Benedict Medal for the 1400th anniversary of his birth in 1880 This medal was first struck in 1880 to commemorate the fourteenth centenary of Saint Benedicts birth and is also called the Jubilee Medal its exact origin however is unknown In 1647 during a witchcraft trial at Natternberg near Metten Abbey in Bavaria the accused women testified they had no power over Metten which was under the protection of the cross An investigation found a number of painted crosses on the walls of the abbey with the letters now found on St Benedict medals but their meaning had been forgotten A manuscript written in 1415 was eventually found that had a picture of Saint Benedict holding a scroll in one hand and a staff which ended in a cross in the other On the scroll and staff were written the full words of the initials contained on the crosses Medals then began to be struck in Germany which then spread throughout Europe This medal was first approved by Pope Benedict XIV in his briefs of 23 December 1741 and 12 March 1742 15 Saint Benedict has been also the motive of many collectors coins around the world The Austria 50 euro The Christian Religious Orders issued on 13 March 2002 is one of them Influenceedit Austria 50 euro The Christian Religious Orders commemorative coin The early Middle Ages have been called the Benedictine centuries 16 In April 2008 Pope Benedict XVI discussed the influence St Benedict had on Western Europe The pope said that with his life and work St Benedict exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the dark night of history that followed the fall of the Roman empire 17 Saint Benedict contributed more than anyone else to the rise of monasticism in the West His Rule was the foundational document for thousands of religious communities in the Middle Ages 18 To this day The Rule of St Saint Benedict Benedict is the most common and influential Rule used by monasteries and monks more than 1400 years after its writing Today the Benedictine family is represented by two branches the Benedictine Federation and the Cistercians 19 The influence of Saint Benedict produced a true spiritual ferment in Europe and over the coming decades his followers spread across the continent to establish a new cultural unity based on Christian faith A cathedral was built upon the birthplace of Saints Benedict and Scholastica in the 1400s Ruins of their familial home were excavated from beneath the church and preserved The earthquake of October 30th 2016 completely devastated the cathedral structure leaving only the front facade and altar standing 2021 See alsoedit Saints portal Anthony the Great Benedictine Order Camaldolese Hermit Poustinia San Beneto Saint Benedict Medal Vade retro satana Tenjin kami patron of students and scholars Referencesedit Barry Patrick 1 July 1995 St Benedict and Christianity in England Gracewing Publishing p  32 ISBN 9780852443385 Retrieved 24 November 2012   a b c d e Fr Paolo O Pirlo SHMI 1997 St Benedict My First Book of Saints Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate Quality Catholic Publications pp  145–147 ISBN 9719159545   Holder Arthur G 29 July 2009 Christian Spirituality The Classics Taylor & Francis p  70 ISBN 9780415776028 Retrieved 24 November 2012 Today tens of thousands of men and women throughout the world profess to live their lives according to Benedicts Rule These men and women are associated with over two thousand Roman Catholic Anglican and ecumenical Benedictine monasteries on six continents   a b c Ford Hugh St Benedict of Norcia The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 2 New York Robert Appleton Company 1907 3 Mar 2014 Life and Miracles of St Benedict Book II Dialogues translated by Odo John Zimmerman O S B and Benedict R Avery O S B Westport CT Greenwood Press 1980 p iv See Ildephonso Schuster Saint Benedict and His Times Gregory J Roettger trans London B Herder 1951 p 2 See Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis editor Historiography in the Middle Ages Boston Brill 2003 pp 1–2 a b Saint Benedict Abbot Lives of Saints John J Crawley & Co Inc Nursia St Benedict of Norcia Catholic Online Retrieved 31 July 2008   Egregiae Virtutis Retrieved 26 April 2009   Apostolic letter of Pope John Paul II 31 December 1980 in Latin Calendarium Romanum Libreria Editrice Vaticana pp 97 and 119 Martyrologium Romanum 199 edito altera 2004 pages 188 and 361 of the 2001 edition Libreria Editrice Vaticana ISBN 9788820972103 Orthodox Church in America The Lives of the Saints March 14th a b The Life of St Benedict by St Gregory the Great Rockford IL TAN Books and Publishers pp 60–62 Western Europe in the Middle Ages Archived from the original on 2 June 2008 Retrieved 17 November 2008   Benedict XVI Saint Benedict of Norcia Homily given to a general audience at St Peters Square on Wednesday 9 April 2008 Retrieved 4 August 2010   Stracke Prof J R St Benedict – Iconography Augusta State University Archived 16 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine Foley O F M Leonard rev McCloskey O F M Pat Saint of the Day American Catholic httpsen nursia orgearthquake httpwww nbcnews comnewsworldbeerbrewingmonksnorciasayearthquakedestroysstbenedictbasilican675536 Gardner Edmund G editor 1911 The Dialogues of Saint Gregory the Great London Warner  CS1 maint Extra text authors list link Gallery of pictures related to Saint Benedictedit Saint Benedict and the cup of poison Melk Abbey Austria Small goldcoloured Saint Benedict Crucifix Two sides of a Saint Benedict Medal Portrait 1926 by Herman Nieg 1849–1928 Heiligenkreuz Abbey Austria St Benedict at the Death of St Scholastica ca 125060 Musée National de lAge Médiévale Paris orig at the Abbatiale of St Denis Statue in Einsiedeln Switzerland External linksedit Saint Benedict pdf from Fr Alban Butlers Lives of the Saints A Benedictine Oblate Priest – The Rule in Parish Life Guide to Saint Benedict St Benedict’s Rule for Monasteries at Project Gutenberg translated by Leonard J Doyle The Holy Rule of St Benedict translated by Boniface Verheyen The Order of Saint Benedict The Medal Or Cross of St Benedict Its Origin Meaning and Privileges Life and Miracles of St Benedict Works by or about Benedict of Nursia at Internet Archive Works by Benedict of Nursia at LibriVox public domain audiobooks The Life of St Benedict from the Caxton translation of the Golden Legend Saint Benedict Of Norcia Patron Of Poison Sufferers Monks And Many More Saint Benedict of Norcia at the Christian Iconography web site The Life of St Benedict Introduction Retrieved 17 November 2008   Colonnade Statue in St Peters Square Founder Statue in St Peters Basilica

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